This paper is the 3rd report of a scries of the experimental studies. It is a purpose of this report to observe and measure a phase of covert mental psychological reacting behaviors of elementary school children in music appreciation and to compare and examine their understanding of a musical meaning or a musical concept resulting from each musical piece. The strategics of this study were as follows. 1) Getting 257 subjects, who arc elementary school children, to appreciate various genres of 7 musical pieces, to rate their feelings caused by the pieces, and to mark them on given rating scales of rating-sheets. 2) Computing the mean value matrix of subjects' ratings, drawing the semantic profiles, and clarifying the differentiations of rating values in each pieces. 3) Computing the total distances in a musical meaning or a musical concept between the pieces in multi-dimentional space by the mean value matrix. 4) Computing a matrix by averaging further the mean value matrix under the factors of rating scales, computing D-matrix by D-mcthod, representing approximately the structure of subjects' musical meaning or musical concept in three-dimentioanl space, and examining it. As the result of this work, the emotional semantic structure of elementary school children in music appreciation could be clarified not only in terms of the intensity but also in terms of the contents of the emotion caused by musical piece. And at the same tiem, an instrument to observe and to measure the covert reacting behaviors resulting from music appreciation could be developed.
Tests as well as Instruction are of importance in social studies classrooms. There has been no study of tests in social studies education. Almost all social studies researchers ignored this aspect. We set about this study to develop tests in history at the secondary school level. For this purpose, we have completed three sets of articles. The first article is to explain the necessary conditions of creating items for history tests and of building a strategic model of creating them. The second is to establish the structure of understanding history from the viewpoint of evaluation and to analyse current tests. The third, the last one, is to attempt to clarify what the most desirable tests are in a very concrete way from the standpoint of creating test items.
In the present paper we intended to make clear teacher's knowledge of motor learning items in physical education of elementary school by using the questionnaire method. The questionnaire consists of two parts, that is, (1) the extent of the relation of each fundamental motor exercise (ex. running, jumping, throwing, etc.) to motor learning items, and (2) the extent of each fundamental motor 'fitness' in the former (ex. endurance, i.e. keeping running in running, etc.) required in the latter. The results obtained from analyzing data of 198 teachers were as follows. 1. A factor analysis was performed on the question (1), and three factors were found: 'manipulation', 'legs-movement'and 'turn-movement'. 2. Teachers classify motor learning items into 6 groups. The contents of these groups cover approximately the 5 domains (except swimming) shown in THE COUSE OF STUDY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL. 3. The mean factor scores of motor learning items in high grade had wider distribution than those in low grade. 4. Teachers with the most teaching experience (over 15 years) evaluated the relationship many fundamental motor exercises closer to each motor learning item than the teachers with the least experience (under 4 years). 5. On the question (2), 9 factors were found, which correspond to 9 fundamental motor exercises in the question (1). These results were discussed from the point of view of making teaching materials and systematizing them.
Sentence combining is the combining of "kernel" sentences into a longer, more complex sentence. As an effective approach to the teaching of writing which addresses syntactic skill, it has been of great interest to teachers and researchers for the past fifteen years, especially in North America. This syntactic approach has proven very successful with native speakers of English: numerous experimental studies (e.g. O'Hare 1973, Combs 1976, and Daiker et al. 1978) have shown that practice with sentence combining greatly enhances syntactic growth and brings about statistically significant improvement in overall quality of students' writing. Also studies on the effects of sentence combining for ESL students (e.g. Crymes 1971, and Klassen 1977), which have not been as extensive as those dealing with native speakers of English, have all demonstrated positive results. These experimental findings confirm that the sentence-combining approach to the teaching of writing is beneficial not only in L1 but also in ESL writing classes. The main merits of sentence-combining practice for ESL students can be summarized as follows. (1) It gives students psychological effects: it lessens students' anxiety and pressure which are usually present |n a writing situation by providing them not only with the content of writing but with the opportunity to explore a wide range of syntactic options. (2) It serves as a grammatical puzzle/game or problem-solving activity, making itself enjoyable practice to students, thus helping to increase their motivation. It is strongly proposed that sentence-combining exercises, especially discourse-level ones, be actively utilized in English composition classes in Japan. They are highly useful as controlled writing exercises complementing and supporting practice in free composition, which is directly linked with the ultimate goal of teaching ESL writing.
We developed simulation teaching aids by using personal computers, and also carried out experimental and demonstrative research on the educational effect of this teaching aids. The main achievements of our research may be summarised as follows: (1) In learning "the electric circuit", theoretical understanding was more effectively achieved using visual teaching aids made by personal computers, while a demonstrative grasp of the subject was achieved effectively through practical tasks. (2) The students showed a strong interest in learning through teaching aids produced by personal computer. (3) It can be considered that there is no significant difference between simulation teaching and practical tasks on the results of achievement test.