S. Krashen (1983) hypothesized that attitudinal variables directly relate to acquisition, not necessarily to learning. I have done a series of research on the relationship between self-esteem, one of the attitudinal variables, and learning/acquisition. The main purpose of the present article is to study the relationship between self-esteem and learning. The results of this research indicate that self-esteem doesn't correlate significantly with learning (r = .18 〜.2O). The previous studies of mine showed that there is a significant correlation between self-esteem and acquisition ( r = .35 〜 .43). Generally speaking, teaching English in Japan is characterized by a Learning-, not Acquisition-, centered approach, which leads to lack of interest and motivation and a sense of incapability in language learning. Then I proposed an ideal learning model based on self-esteem and acquisition. I hypothesize that self-esteem and acquisition will show the highest correlation in this learning model (XY-type of learning model).
In the common education, lessons in music should be supported by Solfege. It is an educational method to learn how to read and write music. It also leads students to grasp musical structures through the ear. Thus Solfege can be expected to deepen students' musical recognition that will help them reach the depths of music. Therefore, Solfege should be the very foundation of musical education. But it has been practically neglected and very few people study .the betterment of Solfege in our country when compared with Kodaly system, for example, in Hungary. On the contrary, Japanese students have had enough of the kind of solfege that often compels them to sit uninterested and even painful singing or hearing automatically without inner music. In order to find a remedy for this, here is presented a suggestion to explore the possibilities of Solfege that will show us the road to music. Before the presentation of how to solve the problem, the principle of pitches as one of those factors dealt with in Solfeging, and its adoption to education are discussed in this thesis.
Recently the author has developed a test battery (CLAT) to measure computer literacy and computer awareness from necessity to practice the teacher education of mathematics. And later the suthor has also developed SD scales to measure attitude toward micro-computer or personal computer, PCSD-U. In the present paper, the author will clarify the relation between CLAT and PCSD-U. Moreover the author has also developed SD scales to measure attitude toward personal computer, PCSD-U_<85>, for a student who has experienced computers.
This experimental study, taking a step ahead of the previous experimental study by the author, has the purpose to construct new proper scales and a practically utilizable questionnaire on the basis of semantic differential for music appreciation. The strategies of this study are as follows. 1) Getting 257 subjects, who are elementary school children, to appreciate 3 tunes of various genres of musical pieces, and to mark their feelings caused by these tunes on 47 rating scales found in the previous experiment. 2) Analyzing respectively the experimental data, after working out (1) raw data matrixes, (2) mean values and standard deviations, (3) coefficients of correlation, (4) factor loadings, and others. 3) Sampling the factors of the covert rerating behavior in music appreciation, by factor analyzing tune after tune, then finding the common factors to every tune by factor rotating. 4) Providing the way to select typical rating scales with a consideration of the common factors, and to construct a condensed questionnaire in the semantic differential for music appreciation. As the result of this work, in order that covert reacting behaviors of music learners in music appreciation may be observed and measured somehow objectively in terms of their overt behaviors, a proposition has been set up how a set of rating scales for a proper semantic differential should be constructed.
The students learning about food in the Home-making Education class are required to have definite conception of quantity if they are to get practical ability in daily life. In spite of the fact that measuring is an essential to carry out a daily life, Japanese are regarded to be lacked to apply measuring technique for the daily life. We investigated the students in various school-level, and examined to what extend they have the sense of measuring in length, capacity and weight in order to get data for placing measurement as the basic technique in class work. As a result we found that students have good sense of length, but they have extremely poor sense of capacity and weight. We also noticed that the progress in the sense of measuring can be seen as the grade proceed among the schools. Therefore we could get a hint that we must train students in learning by using measures as frequently as possible so that they can cultivate the sense of quantity and have definite cognition of quantity.
This paper reports mainly about error analysis on high school physics test results. There are various error types in high school physics test because of descriptive test style. The author classifies three error types; basic error, careless mistaken error and error by before question. Basic error means wrong answer by misunderstanding, careless mistaken error means wrong answer by careless mistake, for example, simple calculation mistake et al, and error by before question means error caused by wrong answer before question which influences after question, because of test composed by small step questions. Moreover the author classifies careless mistaken error to five categories. These errors are symbolized from A to G, and tables containing error symbols are produced, and by use of this table, error analysis is carried out. This table has more information than S-P table containing only two symbols '1' and '0'. By use of this eror analysis, the author obtained as following results on dynamics in high school physics. (1) Careless mistaken error has close correlation with basic error. (2) Error by unexpected misunderstanding in careless mistaken error has little correlation with basic error, and causes large caution coefficient on S-P table. (3) By correcting errors of examination papers and returning to students, it seldom occurs that students make the same type careless mistaken error at next examination. Judgzing from results as mentioned above, careless mistaken error is remarkable error type, because this error is common to all learning units and makes more learning effect in comparison with basic error.
In early childhood, a child must get good habits to live a healthy life. After children get to know how to do, they must carry out by their self-controlled will. This study is planed to know the degree of self-controlled habits, and the instructions in their house and kindergarten. The results of this study are as follows. (1) Others-controlled habits change to self-controlled habits as children grow older. But even five years children can't carry out well by their self-controlled will for hand washing, teeth cleaning and gargling. (2) There is a correlation between getting-up and going-to-bed time and different health habits. (3) Children show the larger degree of health habits in kindergarten than in their house. (4) Proportion of how to hand wash, mouth wash and teeth clean decrease at five. But proportion of the reason why they must behave so about them doesn't increase.