The objective of this study was to clarify the validity of the Hopfield models by which students' schemata were represented, and to clarify the application of the models for constructing learning situations. In this research, eighth grade students were asked to answer a paper-and-pencil test related to animal life and animal bodies. The Hopfield models were constructed by some of their answers. The students' other answers were predicted using the models. The validity of the models was admitted by the correspondence of the predictions with the students' answers. Then some learning contexts were assumed, and the students' responses to the learning contexts were simulated by the models. The models could predict the affairs that the students would remember, so the models were thought to be useful for design of classes.
The major purpose of this study was to inquire into the strategic use of locally spoken languages to deliver more varied visual images in art teaching and learning processes. The research was implemented using elementary school children in the Harima language region (Hyogo prefecture) in order to verify the hypothesis that provincial language use in the rendition of visual forms may have more motivational advantages than the common language use in art teaching. Local terms or words reflect the individual concepts that each word conveys and evoke varied forms of expressions. The analysis showed that the lingual stimuli of regional terms provided more diversity and exaggeration of the visual transformation of their concepts, especially of size and measurements.
The present state of the cultivation activities in environmental education for junior high schools was investigated. Two hundred junior high schools in Japan were investigated. The number of effective answers obtained from the schools was 155 (77.5% of the total). It was found that 72.3% of the schools which answered were implementing environmental education. 57.4% of the schools were also implementing cultivation activities. There was a significant association between environmental education and cultivation activities (x^2 = 20.09 df=1 p<.01). When the intention for environmental education was to interest the students in nature, the cultivation activities played an important role in promoting environmental education. In addition, in this study, we showed the problems and considerations connected with the implementation of cultivation activities in school.
In this article, the author tries to examine the National Standards for Family and Consumer Sciences Education published in 1998 as the product of the home economics curricula in the USA, and to investigate to what extent they are influenced by the curriculum theory of the "Practical Problem Approach" and the practical problem based home economics curricula developed in several states. The National Standards are structured to assist students to integrate content and process by making explicit what is expected of the learners and with the emphasis on how to acquire content. The author found that the National Standards adopted new perspectives of the "Practical Problem Approach" characterized by the practical problems, a family system of actions, and practical reasoning and incorporated peculiarities of the practical problem based home economics curricula developed in the states of Ohio, Wisconsin, Minnesota and Maryland. While the National Standards are mostly reflected in the curriculum theory of the "Practical Problem Approach," they seemed to be designed to integrate various types of exsisting state curricula. The National Standards intended to provide a model available to educators with flexibility for their use.
The text from junior high school technology text books was entered into a text-data base, and a statistical investigation regarding the notation and expression contained within was performed. In the statistical investigation, we also deliberated the contents, the length of the sentences and the clauses between commas. Although the result of the Chinese character investigation was insufficient, it is possible to see the difference in the expression being used in the text books of the two publishers. Results from the two publishers' text books: (1) On the surface, there is no significant difference. (2) Kairyudo company's book is written in a colloquial style and Tokyo-syoseki company's book is written in a more modest style. (3) The length of the sentences does not differ between the text books of the two companies. (4) Kairyudo company's book takes a serious view of the subject, and the process of investigating its subject. In the Tokyo-shoseki company's book, from the frequency of use of the words "use" "being used", it takes a serious view of machinery and tools and the available use of electricity.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the influences of Herbartianism on school music education in Japan in the second half of the Meiji era. After surveying the process of adoption and development of Herbartianism in school music education in Japan, the author analyzes "Jinjo-Shougaku-Shouka" which was the most widespread music textbook at that time. In many songs of the "Jinjo-Shougaku-Shouka", the contents of the texts are related to other subjects, especially morals. The majority of the texts of the songs were versified in a simple style to foster nationalism or an esthetic sense in children. Some texts are about nursery stories, model figures in history, and important people who existed at that time. They are arranged in order of the history of cultural development. All songs are composed with consideration to the development of the vocal range of children. These features reflect the influences of Herbartianism. This inquiry also points out the differences between music education based on Herbartianism in Germany, and in Japan. These findings show the distorted interpretation of Herbartianism in the process of its introduction to Japan.