Two surveys were carried out to complete this research. Four kinds of problems were prepared in the first survey. The Science A problems dealt with calculations related to the Ohm's law that were attached to a unit. The Science B problems dealt with calculations related to the Ohm's law that used symbols like E, R, and I which are not commonly used in the field of mathematics. The Science C problems dealt with calculations related to Ohm's law that used symbols which are not often used in mathematics and were attached to a unit. The Mathematics problems included the calculations that the researchers have used with the aforementioned science problems. A comparison of contextual dependency among the types of problem was undertaken. As a result, the difficulty of calculations in science being caused by a unit became obvious. Three kinds of problems were prepared for the second survey. Mathematical problems regarding a fraction were shown. The science part included calculation problems related to Ohm's law included fraction calculation. The social studies part included problems of the population density which dealt on calculation of fractions. Also, contextual dependency comparison of the type of problems was made by the researchers based on the data gathered. The insight derived from the research on contextual dependency mainly relied on contents and a private characteristics as they appeared.
The study focused on the effect of teaching the strategy of "solving a simpler problem" on performance of generalizing solutions to pattern finding problems. The subjects consist of 131 fourth graders from two elementary schools. The pupils were assigned in either the experimental group or the control group. The experimental group were taught the strategy of "solving a simpler problem" in three lessons. The results of the pre-and post-tests revealed that the pupils in the experimental group have used this strategy more often than those of the control group. However, the control group used the "proportional" strategy more often when they solve a far generalizing problem. This result suggests that it is important to know the strategy of "solving a simpler problem" although the pupils in the experimental group had difficulty of making a mathematical expression based on a pattern and generalizing those expressions correctly.
According to the Ministry of Education of Japan (Monbusho), the new curriculum entitled "Integrative Learning" will be introduced at the elementary school level in 2002. Under the new curriculum, the teachers are expected to have more freedom to choose class topics, and may therefore introduce English conversation with the goal of promoting "international understanding." In order to assess the reaction of teacher trainees to these new curricular changes, the researchers administered a questionnaire to more than 300 students working toward a teaching certificate in elementary education. The data show that many of the students do not have a strong confidence in their current English ability or in their knowledge of "international understanding." They are therefore worried about how to teach the issues related to the new curriculum. Based on the survey, the researchers made a recommendation that universities should offer students classes in oral English communication an background courses in "international understanding" in addition to classes on primary English education methodology. Furthermore, elementary schools should institute a cooperative system allowing teachers to work together in developing and sharing of lesson plans, classroom activities, and teaching materials.
Between the elementary and the lower secondary schools, there is a large gap of the learning contents in the electric current unit when compared. In the elementary school, it is mainly concentrated on observation of concrete matters. However, in the lower secondary school, it is concentrated on tasks dealing with abstract concepts. Accordingly, an apprehension that children might get behind in the concept formation exist. So, the researchers introduced an abstract element into learning electric current in the elementary school science. In this learning method, a metaphor was used as an important medium that might help eliminate the gap. The use of metaphor was placed on the science class as a tool, to make possible the determination of an explanation about the electric current that could not be observed directly through the naked eyes. As a result of analyzing actual conditions of children's conceptions after the class, the conclusions made on the effectiveness of using metaphor in a science class were shown below: 1) Concerning electrical heat, the children could acquire the idea that resistance influences the flow of electric current. 2) Using a metaphor, the children could create an imagination that electric current could not be seen. 3) On the other hand, some problems still remain to be solved. The children still held contradicting ideas on electrical collision and its explanation. It might be difficult for the children in this grade to construct their own concepts by using metaphor by themselves.
The present study attempted to offer communication guidance based on counseling techniques. The researchers analyzed the description of a recording form used in counseling and provided qualitative analyses of an 8-mm video recording collected throughout one school term. Based on the data, the researchers concluded that students can recognize the value of activities undertaken through this kind of communication guidance derived from the currently used techniques for counseling. It was also clarified that smooth communication activities among the students can take place when they receive appropriate communication guidance in order to set up an environment conducive to these kind of activities at the beginning of the class. This was exemplified by an observable increase in the frequency of questions and answers made and in the number of dialogue members. It also became clear to the researchers that the sense of both cognitive and social competence of the students increased through the introduction of this kind of communication activities. In addition, a number of local autonomous studies were undertaken.
In order to clarify the idea on the structure of practical abilities for home economics teaching fostered during practice teaching as well as factors and issues for its development, the researcher have carried out an inquiry through a questionnaire for practice teaching students. As indicators of lesson practical abilities, 42 items were selected and the students were requested to assess how each item was learned during the teaching session in five degrees. Through factor analysis, the result could be explained by four factors. Among the factors, the "strategies for teaching" was ranked to be the best learned, followed by "control of teaching and learning" and "fostering of pupil's learning" in decreasing order. The last one on "considerations for pupils" was rated to be the factor that was learned the least. Furthermore, the recognition of teaching profession to control practical abilities and formation of interrelations between subjects were found out to be insufficient, thus, the researcher is recommending reform of the current university education. The students argued that it was necessary to be prepared for teaching before undergoing actual practice teaching, and they also requested for a longer period of practice teaching.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of factors like self-esteem, causal attribution, expectancy and affect upon students' English learning behavior by applying the Weiner's model to regular English examinations in the lower secondary school level. A survey involving 345 seventh-grade students was conducted. Based on the data gathered, the researcher found out that 80 students regarded their own examination result as a sign of success and 135 students considered their scores to be a sign of failure. The subjects were asked to make causal attributions for their examination results, and to rate their expectancy and affect for the next examination. The result of the path analysis made revealed that the Weiner's model had been supported partly. As a recommendation, the author stressed the need to conduct more researches on achievement motive in educational practices.
A lesson plan for 20 hours in "General Home Economics" in the upper secondary school level was developed in order to stimulate students' interest in studying about the dwelling environment and to empower them to acquire more willingness to take part in the process of decision making and implementation to initiate change. The following points were taken into consideration during the planning stage: 1) A lesson was planned to enable students acquire interest on aspects that naturally progress from private to public spheres. 2) The private and public group studies were planned to make good influence on each other since both were well associated. 3) The client was temporarily settled for the task of designing classroom and public facilities, and the decision making process was included in this study. The study consisted of three parts. The first part, the introductory section, fostered the conceptualization of comfortable dwelling environment. The second, the core study section, focused on planning, drawing and making models of publicly owned spaces. The third was the part for reflection and conclusion. The lesson plan was actually used at the first grade level at an upper secondary school in Fukui prefecture from September to December in 1995. Most part of the whole lesson plan was practiced well and the students were observed to have participated actively in their classes.