Recent increased attention to the learner and to the learner-centered communicative approach to classroom teaching has led to the tremendous growth of learning strategy research in the past few years. Learning strategies are processes, procedures, or steps taken by the learner that can facilitate the acquisition, storage, retrieval, and utilization of information (Schmeck, 1988;Weinstein, 1988). Two major learning strategy classification systems have been described in this article. O'Malley & Chamot's (1990) system classifies strategies into three broad categories: (a) meta- cognitive strategies (i.e., planning, directed attention, selective attention, self-management, self-monitoring, problem identification, and self-evaluation), (b) cognitive strategies (i.e., repetition, resourcing, grouping, note-taking, deduction/induction, substitution, elaboration, summarization, translation, transfer, and inferencing),and (c) social and affective strategies (i.e., questioning, cooperation; self-talk, and self-reinforcement). Oxford's (1990) system, on the other hand, classifies strategies into direct strategies (i.e., those behaviors involving direct use of the language) and indirect strategies (i.e., those behaviors which support language learning although they do not directly involve using the language). Included in direct strategies are memory strategies for entering information into memory and retrieving it, cognitive strategies for manipulating the language for reception and production of meaning, and compensation strategies for overcoming limitations in existing knowledge. Included in indirect strategies are metacognitive strategies for organizing and evaluating meaning, affective strategies for managing emotions and attitudes, and social strategies for learning with others. Major introspective research methods which have been employed to assess second language learners' strategies are questionnaires, interviews, diaries, and think-aloud procedures. It is important that researchers use multiple techniques (e.g., combining thinking-aloud with interviews) to compensate for the problems inherent in each method and to obtain more accurate, valid data on learners' strategic processing (Matsumoto, 1993, 1994).
It is regarded generally that the junior high school students are the puberty on the developmental stage. And the school is involved 12, 13, 14, 15 years old student and they are classified 3 grade. In this study using the questionnaire method, it was made clear how to be recognized the developmental characteristics of the students of the grade by the teachers. The results were as follows: 1. So many characteristics of each grade were made clear. 2. It should be distinguished the" first grade from the second or the third in the developmental stage of the puberty.
I gave three classes of AIDS education to second year pupils at junior high school in 1992, and also conducted a survey three times in the same year on their knowledges of AIDS and attitudes toward HIV carriers. The surveys took place before the first class, two months and one year after the final class. The main points which I focused on in our classes are as follows, a ; The characteristics of HIV. b ; The ways of getting HIV and the preventives against it. c ; The ideal social surroundings for the carriers. With the aim of educating pupils about AIDS, I have completed this work. The motive of our study was to find out a practical and effective way of making pupils understand HIV disease and its carriers through the AIDS education. The followings are our findings: 1. Negative images concerning peoples with HIV (unpleasant to be around, filthy, disgusting) gradually decreased by classes. 2. After having learned more about the people with HIV and their problems, the pupils became aware of social isolation of these people, and showed sympathy. 3. Carefully consideration should be given in choosing materials used in the classes, for instance, such merely depressing or distressing videos may only upset and disturb pupils. 4. After the classes of AIDS education, the pupils showed more positive attitude toward those who have HIV and less hesitation in sharing a social life with those people. 5. Regarding the knowledge of the route of infecting with HIV, not much of the knowledge was stored firmly in pupils' mind one year after the final classes. The older the memory becomes, the less certain knowledge becomes.
There were various studies on what outstanding foreign language teachers are like, but new trends show that much more emphasis has been laid on how they behave themselves in the classrooms. Moskowitz (1976) proposed thirty-six characteristics of foreign language teachers and compared outstanding foreign language teachers with very poor ones concerning them. I devised forty characteristics of Japanese language teachers and did empirical research on the characteristics students demand of outstanding teachers. I concluded that the characteristics could be grouped into four factors as a result of factor analysis. The first factor is teachers' professional awareness of affective teaching. The second one is the knowledge of target language and other know ledge. The third one is the knowledge of methodology and practical competence of teaching. The fourth one is the interpersonal skills and empathetic understanding of students' feelings. I also concluded that the fourth factor could be ranked first, the first one second, the third one third and the second one fourth. This shows that Japanese language learners consider the fourth factor the most important and the first one the second most important. Basically these two factors can be boiled down into the affective and social variables in foreign language education.
The purpose of this study was to make visible the actual situation of spatial images of students. For this purpose, the authors analyzed a viewpoint locating process that was considered necessary in improving spatial cognition. The authors investigated by using three viewpoints. These were on getting a spatial image from three or two dimensional figures and locating relative viewpoints in a spatial image. The results were as below : (1) It was possible for the students to locate a viewpoint in case there was only a single direction. Therefore, the students could obtain spatial image from the figure on a paper. On the other hand, the students could not do it in case the directions are many. (2) Inside a spatial image, the students could rotate the whole frame of the image they possess. However, a partial operation was difficult. (3) It became clear that the third graders of the junior high school were on the transitional period toward the higher step of spatial cognition.
Of two officially authorized procedures for the determination of synthetic anionic surfactants, the methylene blue method can be extended by slight modification for analysis both soap and synthetic anionic surfactants. The procedure proposed is easily employed in elementary, junior-high and senior-high schools to demonstrate experimentally the biodegradation of soap and synthetic anionic surfactants, giving an assistance to teachers and students in their study on the environment.