There are two forms of educational institution in musical education: one for advanced professional training carried out in colleges or junior colleges, the other for the initiation of elementary knowledge of music given in compulsory education level schools. In either case, what is aimed at finally is in principle to "develop sentiments for loving music." Various academic researches have naturally been made with regard to their objectives, contents and methods from an educational point of view. But little attention seems to have been paid to individual tuition or music lesson class. The number of teen-agers and downward enrolled in this special form of musical education is said to reach more than 40 per cent of those in the same age-bracket. Mental environment is a potent influence on character building, especially with preschool age group. Then, it is a matter of great importance whether or not music teachers concerned are conscious of the importance of their occupation. What kind of research study are they really engaged in? Isn't it necessary for us to make an inquiry into these problems on a scientific level? On over 20,000 junior high school students and 88 music teachers, the writer made a survey of their educational consciousness and the actual condition in which they are placed. By the help of what this survey indicates, the writer expects to throw an objective light on the problems involved in private form of musical education, with emphasis on training teachers in this direction.
A method of measuring pitch was developed by using some instruments for physical experiment and has been applied to music education to date. In the present study, the children sang the song of "Haru no Ogawa" and the pitches and intervals of the song were analyzed and discussed. The results revealed that the pitches and intervals were somewhat different with age and sex and also were influenced by the difference of melody. The study has, further, enabled us to give an immediate feedback of analytical data to music education.
One of the distinguishing characteristics of a highly skilled person is the ability to perform a skill in a number of different ways according to variations in environmental demands. This flexibility in motor behavior has been considered as resulting from the acquisition of a motor program operating under the constraints of "fixed rules" and governed by "flexible strategies" (Koestler, 1969). Taking into consideration the above mentioned statements, the following hypothesis was constructed. In serial skill learning, as the teaching program becomes stricter and each component part of a serial task becomes overprogrammed, the learner's degree of freedom in response choice becomes more restricted. As a consequence, it is thought that the invariant properties (fixed rule) of the skill become overemphasized and hence serial motor patterns are acquired only as a fixed motor program. Forty female undergraduate students participated in this experiment to test the above hypothesis. The experiment was conducted in a real-life classroom situation and the subjects were divided into two groups (G.A and G.B), each with twenty subjects. Two learning conditions based on the degree of freedom of response choice where set up and the two groups were respectively assigned to each learning condition. The task was a serial learning of basketball skills. The results were analyzed in terms of execution time of trials, successful trials, anticipation, errors, and stability in performance. It was found that the group which performed under the higher degree of freedom showed a high performance level in relation to all the above mentioned measures. These results showed support for the hypothesis and were interpreted as evidence in favor of the assumption that as the teaching program becomes stricter, the degree of freedom of the learner's action is reduced. And consequently, it becomes more and more difficult to acquire flexible motor programs.
In our previous paper, the relationships among velocity, step frequency and step length during a-100-meter run was examined. From the results, a simple recording method of them was devised. In this paper, applying the simple recording method to sprint running class, the improvement of students' running records and the changes of their images about sprint running were compared before and after the exercise classes. For the comparison, 3 junior high schools with different teaching methods were used, that is, firstly, the experimental school (85 students) in which the recording method is applied to let the students find out their own problems to improve their running pattern and then try to solve them, secondly, the controlled school I (80 students) in which, without using the recording method, the usual systematic teaching method is adopted, and lastly, the controlled school II (84 students) in which sprint running is not adopted at all. Besides, to compare the results after the exercise classes, the students of each school were divided into 3 groups (which is consist of 10 students each) according to their running records during a-100-meter run before the classes; (i.e., A : 13.3 〜 14. 7 sec, B : 14.8 〜 16.0 sec.,C: 16. 1 〜 18.0 sec.) The results were summarized as follows; 1) The simple recording method was very effective when it is adopted in the exercise classes to let the students grasp their own running pattern from the viewpoint of velocity, step frequency and step length during a-100-meter run. 2) After the exercise classes significant improvement of running record was seen, in every group in the experimental school (the time was shortened 0.22 sec. in A, 0.37 sec. in B, 0.61 sec. in C), in B and C groups in the controlled school I (0.29 sec. in B, 0.40 sec. in C). On the other hand, no significant improvement could be observed in the controlled school I. 3) In the experimental school, the great improvement was seen, in every group, on their step length and rate of deceleration during a-100-meter run compared with the records before the classes. 4) In the experimental school, the students' images about sprint running could be success- fully changed. 5) The improvement in the experimental school mentioned above in 2), 3) and 4), seems to have been achieved through the students' activities rather than because of the appropriate content of the exercise, for they grasped their own running pattern, finding their problems to improve through those activities, and took spontaneous exercise based on their findings. Moreover, the most primary factor that has caused the improvement is probably due to the very application of the simple recording method in the classes. It is, however, impossible for us at this moment to assert which is the primary factor, the teaching method or the application of the recording method.
To the freshmen of the lower secondary schools, practice in polishing plane iron edges helps to the improvement of their wood manufacturing techniques such as the handling of wood-working machines and the planing of metals. On this ground, we practiced the beginners in polishing plane iron edges. Next we tested the sharpness of the blades they had polished, and examined the state of the blades by measuring their cutting force. Those experiments proved that the freshmen had been successful to some degree in polishing. On this paper are reported the data obtained through the experiments made for the improvement of the teaching method of wood manufacturing.
One of the author, Soh Irene has a chance to study science education in the master course of the Aichi University of Education as an ASEAN foreign student. This introducing paper is written based on a lecture, titled "The new education system in Singapore", performed at a meeting of the Department of Chemistry in the University. Difference from Japan, Singapore is a multi-racial country, and recently, it is growing rapidly. The aim of the articles is to describe the to describe the outline of the new education system in Singapore.