The Bulletin of Japanese Curriculum Research and Development
Online ISSN : 2424-1784
Print ISSN : 0288-0334
ISSN-L : 0288-0334
Volume 2 , Issue 1-2
Showing 1-21 articles out of 21 articles from the selected issue
  • ICHIO MORI
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 2 Issue 1-2 Pages 1-6
    Published: October 31, 1977
    Released: January 07, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The present study aimed at investigating the development of children's conception of life, and putting the developmental study to the guide of curricular design. Children's conception of life divides into four successive steps, i.e., the conception of personified life, vitalism, mechanism, and the conception of life regarded as a system. This paper gives a brief illustration of elementary and secondary biology curriculum materials.
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  • NAOYUKI IGUCHI
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 2 Issue 1-2 Pages 7-13
    Published: October 31, 1977
    Released: January 07, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It was made clease with using the analytical elements of consciousness that these is a close relation between increasing vocabulary and growing cognition. The analytical elements are built with consciousness of time, space and organic sense. On infant education, it is very important for the infant to learn using the words of sensibility, that is, degree of light, extent of size, grade of speed, etc.. And there is no doubt that it is profitable for the infant to grow cognition that they know the opposite words after making systems of consciousness for positive sense.
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  • ICHIRO TANGE
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 2 Issue 1-2 Pages 15-24
    Published: October 31, 1977
    Released: January 07, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The aim of this paper is to discuss the objective of English as a school subject and the methods to realize it. The general objective of foreign language as a school subject is stipulated in the course of study as follows: To cultivate the basis for the ability to understand and express in a foreign language, deepen the sense of language, and build up the basis for international This objective is reasonable. What is really, however, the ability to understand and express in a foreign language? The ability to understand and express is, in my opinion, nothing other than the ability to represent and operate language signs and symbols.
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  • TAKESI NAGASAWA
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 2 Issue 1-2 Pages 25-31
    Published: October 31, 1977
    Released: January 07, 2018
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    Today education is one of the serious social problems in Japan, too. Above all, the quality of education is taken far more interest than it's means, system etc. Standing on such a situation, some people is at grips with research of all-round curriculum. Besides, many studies in synthesizing the science which is branched have been failed to pressure from every angle, because none of them have paid regard to the relation of mobile society and education. Now, I intend to frame such educational activities as the students can understand the relation between man and nature with a mind to the existence of human beings. When I set to this study, I took the following to points into consideration; I To teach the common domain between social science and natural science II Reform the method of teaching to make the students learn of their own will.
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  • DAIRYO HIGUCHI
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 2 Issue 1-2 Pages 33-40
    Published: October 31, 1977
    Released: January 07, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    For studying a state of them when children say "I see.", one pupil(N) with a wireless-microphone was recorded about his behavior; what thought, what did, and who related with in class. The results are as follows: (1) What children learned is remembered with the images. (2) When asked about it, they will be sure to recollect the images of it, and answer about it in their judgment by comparing the question with the images. (3) That is why, the more detailed he remembers, the more minute he explanes. Therefore, the depth of understanding and the detail of images will be the same meaning. (4) Detailed images are constracted in presentation of cleasmates in class. This report is about 1,2,3.
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  • TAKUYA SAEKI
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 2 Issue 1-2 Pages 41-46
    Published: October 31, 1977
    Released: January 07, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The researches in attitudes toward mathematics are poor stuff in spite of necessity for the investigations in Japan. In foreign countries, in United States especially, the researches in attitude toward mathematics have been tackled since 1950's, and become more active in 1970's. In the present paper we shall review these antecedent researches and show the scales of semantic differential which are sensitive to the make-up problem test as an example. Moreover we shall discuss the future researches in attitude toward mathematics.
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  • KATSUNOBU MATSUMOTO
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 2 Issue 1-2 Pages 47-53
    Published: October 31, 1977
    Released: January 07, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This is a basic research study to make clear the cognitive process in children's learning behavior. An analysis of children's behavior and psycho-physiological activities is used as a means to this end. The study was undertaken to measure them in undergraduate students in place of children, as induced by "Remembering", "Describing" and "Interpreting". Such activities were recorded in successive tests measuring changes in Electro-oculogrphy (EOG) induced by saccadic eye movement. By means of EOG testing, 1) Interpretation of changes of natural phenomena, description of a natural thing and remembrance of one's experiences were measured from each student. 2) Various EOGs induced by saccadic eye movements were recorded for each student, according to each remembering, describing and interpriting. The subjects were six undergraduate students. The experiment was undertaken using three kinds of small experiment. One was to solve a problem concerned with changes of natural phenomena, another was to describe a natural thing and the other was to remember one's experiences with regard to the natural thing. These natural thing and phenomena were presented by means of the concrete materials. The results are summarized as follows; 1) There was no significant difference between the appearance rate of the EOG which is more than 50μV induced by "Remembering" and "Describing". 2) The appearance rate of EOG which is more than 50μV induced by "Interpreting" was higher than that the "Describing" and than that by "Remembering" (p < 0.01). 3) The appearance rate of EOG which is more than 50μV induced by a interpretative scene in "Interpreting" was higher than that by a descriptive scene in it (p <0.01). 4) The appearance rate of EOG which is more than 50μV induced by a descriptive scene in "Interpreting" was higher than that by "Describing" (P < 0.01). The results show a significant difference of the appearance rate of the saccadic eye movement among induced by "Remembering", "Describing" and "Interpriting". The differences of "Remembering", "Describing" and "Interpreting" are the degree and extent of thought operations and whether the thought operations have a direction or not. It may be assumed from these results that the appearance rate of EOG correspond to the degree and extent of thought operations and whether the thought operations have a direction or not.
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  • SHIGEKI KADOYA
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 2 Issue 1-2 Pages 55-61
    Published: October 31, 1977
    Released: January 07, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of the previous research done by Kadoya (1977) was to identify the factors which are concerned with the children's learning activity which school teachers consider to be important or unimportant. The five factors, i.e. the ability of logic, the ability of expressing, the ability of behaving, the ability of constructing, the ability of motivating were found. Based upon the previous research, the present study attempts to investigate the relation- ship among the five factors of the learning activity. It was found that the ability of logic is closely related to the ability of expressing, and in the same way the ability of behaving is related to the ability of motivating. Thus it was concluded that two new categories which include the ability of logic and the ability of ex- pressing on the one hand and the ability of behaving and the ability of motivating on the other hand should be set up.
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  • KAZUTOMO SAKAMOTO
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 2 Issue 1-2 Pages 63-70
    Published: October 31, 1977
    Released: January 07, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It may be supposed that perceptual-motor behavior in motor learning could develop into organic motor behavior, if the information of motor skill would be organized into a serial information in order. The present experiment has been carried out to test our serial organization of its motor skills and verbal instruction about them by applying them tentatively in the actual volley-ball classes. The results are as follows: 1. Each student in the class could acquire relatively easily the organization of the components of "Receive-Toss-Attack from two ways", by mastering the serial order of Receive-Toss behavior. It may be safely said that, acquired by this method, the rate of retention of serial behavior of each student is high, and the quantity of his memory of the information of motor skill could increase. 2. On the other hand, in case that any students could not sufficiently master the serial order of Receive-Toss behavior, they could not easily perform "Receive-Toss-Attack from two ways". But it has been found out that "Receive-Toss-Attack from two ways" could be performed successfully, if the ball were tossed nearby the net, and moreover the ball tossed were higher than the height of the net.
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  • TOSHIKAZU WADA
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 2 Issue 1-2 Pages 71-76
    Published: October 31, 1977
    Released: January 07, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this paper is to bring a little light to a very important problem in Educational Psychology which deserves attention today. The problem is the existence of disparity in the dual aspects of Educational Psychology, i,e. the abstract and the concrete, aspects of the subject. Though each field depends on the other, we can recognize the opposing forces existing between them. Such forces can be expressed in contrasting words like "alalysis and integration," "conditional evaluation and non-conditional evaluation." It is not simple to make a practical application of the principles propounded by Educational Psychology. We should be cautious of our easy-going attitude, and pay more serious attention to the problems which exist between theory and practice in Education.
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  • SADATO MORIMASA
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 2 Issue 1-2 Pages 77-84
    Published: October 31, 1977
    Released: January 07, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The use of various kinds of teaching materials and tools as media of learning, and their relationship to the effectiveness in learning were examined through several experimental lessons. In our overall examination, the following have been noticed as general tendencies: In this reasons through the textbook, language was learned precisely and easily;, an improvement was shown in the grasp and memorization of the ideas and theories explained in words-Symbolic Grasp. In the lessons in which slide projectors and OHP's were used, the grasp and memory through images - Iconic Grasp - were improved. In the lessons conducted through the observation of objects, a notable tendency was shown in the grasp and memorization of the contents of the lesson concretely, substantively, in their actual state, and as a whole - Concrete Grasp. In the lessons through practice, the grasp and memory through operation - Enactive Grasp - were improved. The tendencies shown above - the "tendencies of the contents or qualities of the information contained in the teaching materials and tools - Media of Learning - to be learned (or recognized) easily," this writer calls the "dominant tendency of learning (or recognition) of particular form of information (stimulus) through receptors." In this paper, I would like to make a report of the results of our experiments in these researches.
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  • YUJI NAKATANI, YASUYUKI FUJIKAWA
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 2 Issue 1-2 Pages 85-99
    Published: October 31, 1977
    Released: January 07, 2018
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    The authors had studied, intending to find out "the way of giving information" about the very rapid phenomena and the very slow phenomena, and etc.. On this paper, they could have many instructive effects when they had the focusing method by means of audio-visual aids after the measurement of volume of a water droplet under the various conditions, about the measurement of extremely little quantities of liquid. The contents of this paper are as follows; 1. Pretace 2. Main Thesis 2.1. Motivation and Object of This Study 2.2. Status of Students 2.3. Experiment and Its Results 2.4. Result of Investigation and Interpretation 3. Epilogue-Effect and Bibliography.
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  • KAZUO SATO
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 2 Issue 1-2 Pages 101-104
    Published: October 31, 1977
    Released: January 07, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The present author knows that many senior students in classroom are disconcerted in a proper application of the Fleming's left-hand and right-hand rule's. He thinks that in view of the present situation, two kinds of Fleming's rules which are actually confusable must be incorporated in a new one. The fule is extension of the right hand screw rule. We rotate the direction of either the current or the motion towards the direction of the magnetic field. If the direction of rotation is accordant with revolution of the right hand screw, then the direction of the advance of the right hand screw points to direction of either the force which the current receives from the magnetic field or the induced electro-motive force which is resulted from the motion of circuit in the magnetic field.
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  • RYOTARO MOHRI
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 2 Issue 1-2 Pages 105-110
    Published: October 31, 1977
    Released: January 07, 2018
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    Too much emphasis is put on control of environments in the present curriculum of cultivation in the technical education of a middle school curse. The present author thinks control of environments to be merely a technique. Then he selects basic techniques of cultivation from the objective point of view and, being careful not to overlap, proposes to arrange as follows: 1. Plans of Cultivation 2. Relation between Conditions of Growth and Cultivation 3. Means of Labor 4. Methods of Cultivation 5. Cultivation and Safety 6. Measurements in Cultivation 7. Cultivation and Life
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  • TAKETSUNE SAKAKI
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 2 Issue 1-2 Pages 111-116
    Published: October 31, 1977
    Released: January 07, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Teacher, children and materials are principal elements of the class. The materials have the information that a teacher communicates to the children in order to let the children attain to the educational aims. So the organization of the materials must depend on the educational aims and the children's ways of thinking. As the first step of the organization of the materials, the role of culture for a human should be clarified, then we should declare what relations there exist between human culture and cognitive activities. From the viewpoint that science education is to develop the children by their activities of cognition to natural phenomena, the organization of the materials should be based on "WATER" rather than anything else, in order to let the children recognize nature uniformly. This proposal can be supposed by the following facts. First, water relates to many natural phenomena, for example, the birth of life, the life of creature, atmospheric phenomena and so on. Second, it can be seen in everyday situations that water is an object of children's activities and interests. Last, water is concerned with human culture deeply. This is shown by the fact that civilization was born near marsh, and that man builds dams to utilize water at present. For the purpose of letting children develop their cognition for nature and recognize nature uniformly in learning the units of the materials, the materials should be organized by the medium of "WATER" rather than by any other medium.
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  • TERUHISA KODERA
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 2 Issue 1-2 Pages 117-122
    Published: October 31, 1977
    Released: January 07, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    There are different approaches to the teaching of art education. And they have their own characteristics. Basically there is a conceived idea, its form of expression, planning and execution and from these to appreciation and evaluation. But todays' art does not necessary face into the well known categories of painting, design, sculture and others. It presupposes them. When offering and directing the students in the use of concrete materials and techniques there appears a big difference of interest between those students who had some experience before and those who didn't. This paper presents the results of a research into the actual use of some teaching materials.
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  • EDAHIKO MURAKAMI
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 2 Issue 1-2 Pages 123-132
    Published: October 31, 1977
    Released: January 07, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Investigating Science with Children was prepared by the joint project of NSTA (the National Science Teachers Association) and NASA (the National Aeronautics and Space Administration) for the purpose of the development of elementary school science teaching. The handbooks were included following 6 volumes : 1: Living Things, 2: Atoms and Molecules, 4: Motion, 5: Energy in Waves, 6: Space, and each book was about 90 pages of A-4 binding. In this report is was intended to introduce the general approach and philosophy of the series, and also to present 4 activities (experiments) selected from 64 activities in Atoms and Molecules, and to evaluate the actualization of the philosophy to the real activity. The difference of the situation between our country was also discussed.
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  • HIROSHI OYAMA
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 2 Issue 1-2 Pages 133-135
    Published: October 31, 1977
    Released: January 07, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Up to this time a psycho-physiological indication corresponding to a subject's cognition has been sought for. From the object which the subject is watching and the speech and behavior in which he express his feeling as the result we have drawn deduction on his cognition, and pride to follow the relation between the cognition and the psycho-physiological response. At present, in order to know the object the subject is watching, the record of the shifting visual recognition by the method of corneal reflection is in use. But this method only shows which way the eyes are looking, and it is impossible for us to find out whether he is in visual recognition or not. By our experiment, examining by the indication of EMG the tension of muscles near the eyeballs which is supposed to be caused only when he is watching some- thing, we tried to find out if there is such recognition as above mentioned. The average ampliture per second of EMG at the time of visual recognition indicated a smaller value than at the time of unvisual recognition. From the fact, however, that the amplitude at the time of unvisual recognition for the two difficult themes indicated a large value, the examination of the theme and the amplitude of EMG, etc., has come to needed.
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  • SAKASHI TAKAGI
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 2 Issue 1-2 Pages 137-142
    Published: October 31, 1977
    Released: January 07, 2018
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  • KATSUSHI MASUJI
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 2 Issue 1-2 Pages 143-148
    Published: October 31, 1977
    Released: January 07, 2018
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  • KENZO NAKATANI
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 2 Issue 1-2 Pages 149-154
    Published: October 31, 1977
    Released: January 07, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The spirit, respecting to extend man's originality and creativity was produced from the anthropocentricism in modern Europe and it has been a fundamental teaching idea for art education for the last thirty years after the World War II. This spirit, however, has also aroused my suspect through practices that we cannot sufficiently cultivate students' humanity and personality by emphasizing this spirit only. In this sense, I have been bringing my concern into focuss on this problem from every viewpoint imaginable. As a result, I have come to carry the following ideas into practice: For the first thing, while we understand and employ effectively the virtue of the 'originality and creativitycentred' education, we should direct our eyes to man's future and let students ask themselves what they live for or how they can appreciate the value of man's existence, and at the same time let them think deeply over this or that about themselves. For the second thing, we lead students to know how to love nature (every thing in this cosmos) and to feel that they are in one united body. Adapting those two standpoints into the present art education, I have made some experiments to unite the both. This time, through my studies, I am to describe the reason why I have come to propose a new idea, the Great Subjectivity' and a new teaching method into present art education.
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