The purpose of this study is to clarify how rules are treated in the course of study after World War II, and the features and backgrounds of learning rules. The main findings are as follows; (1) The central issue of learning rules in the course of study has been concerned with how to inculcate moral attitudes that advocate the importance of obeying rules. This reflects the theory of sports norm in Japan and the view of physical education that is "education through physical activities." (2) Under the influence of the course of study, the main theme of learning rules in physical education has been towards the end of cultivating moral attitude and learning application of rules. (3) In the course of study, an important aspect of learning rules, that is recognizing basic concept of rules commonly shared by various kinds of sports, has been neglected. Recently, however, a new type of learning rules has emerged, which aims to the establishment of social scientific recognition of such concept as rules. A major theme of further study is to construct and develop teaching contents under the new type of learning rules.
In this study the authors made a teaching structure on the Eating Habits Part of High School Homemaking Class, based on data gathered on a survey of high school students' attitude toward homemaking education. The survey results show that the attitude mean value was 5.50, a little higher than the medium. It seems that the girls have more favorable attitude with mean value of 5.14 compared with the boys with mean value of 5.86. Based on the chart of "the Percentage of Classified Opinions", the Eating Habits Part of Homemaking was studied to solve some problems of Homemaking Education. The authors made a model of a unit lesson plan using the materials that students have produced in their daily food life. This unit lesson plan aims to let the students realize the meanings of "Relationship between human and food, and breadth of eating", and let this meaning be internalized in their essential life. The authors also expect that the students will learn to have a firm attitude toward their life.
An evaluation of synthetic practice was undertaken in this study and the following facts were evident: (1) Synthetic teaching plan and practice are effective for students' consciousness and understanding. (2) Consciousness about lessons is partially influenced by life situation and by the results of examination and practical attitude. (3) To the able to look at synthetic teaching plan and practice from different angles, the mutual relationship of content coverage above human will must be investigated. In actual training, students tend to response on their own but during lectures and surveys they tend to give the same level of response. (4) In case of twins, practical attitudes are alike among girls, but different among boys. Although twins have similar hereditary aptitude, such as home life and school life, they have formed different understanding because of regional influence and devestablishment of personality. So, it is necessary to select contents coverage in consideration of the wide difference in regional life.
The author believes that art education is neither "education for art itself" nor "education through art". The significance of art education lies on its contribution to the advancement of one's understanding of art itself, and to the expansion of people's view of the actual world (including arts) as it is recognized. To realize this kind of art education, the author integrates arts (like sciences, languages and ordinary perceptions), which are made up of various kinds of symbols, symbolic relations and systems of symbols, from a cognitive point of view. This paper aims to show the basic ideas of inter-arts curriculum based on N. Goodman's cognitive theories of art, and to make clear the conceptual frameworks of this curriculum especially "exemplification" which may be a key to integrating arts. The main "ideas" constituting this curriculum can be formulated as follows: (1) the educational function of art lies on its cognitive function; (2) the worlds and cognitions of them are made up of symbols and their functions; (3) sciences and arts make a multiple network of symbols, and equally participate in the advancement of one's understanding, interrelating with each other; and (4) the value of art lies greatly in enlarging one's view of the actual world (including arts). These "ideas" determine the second constitutive principle "goal"; which is to advance one's understanding of the artworlds which are open to other fields through mastering cognitive systems of art (especially music). The inquiry also gives fresh insights on the curriculum organization of other subjects, for "exemplification" may have a function of integrating other areas besides arts. Moreover, our plan includes the idea that all subjects are reorganized according to different cognitive systems.
To improve the teaching of fish in home economics class, a survey was conducted among junior high school freshmen students on their ideas of fish. The survey was done in five areas from a fishing village, a local city, and a metropolis. Survey questions include items on their experiences of sport fishing, and fish cooking, the number of fish related dishes encountered in a week, and their image of fish related dishes, etc. The students' answers to these questions differ greatly with the areas where they live. In the fishing village, most junior high school freshmen students are very familiar with the fish as expected; while in other areas majority of the students do not know even the shapes of fishes. Most freshmen knew that fish is good for human health, although many prefer meat because these students are unfamiliar with the appearance of the fish. In general, the results of the survey strongly indicate that fish should be used as a teaching material, provided that regional differences in preference of young people for fish are taken into account.
This paper aims to clarify the principle of forming national identity by analyzing the textbook "Kokushi-Chiri" (Japanese History and Geography) used in Korea when it was under Japanese rule. The author analyzed how the book was integrated and how its instructional materials were selected and arranged. The results of this paper are as follows: 1) The method of integration is by associating Geography with Japanese History in chronological order. The reason is to make children contribute to the development of nation by understanding the trend of Japan's geographical expansion based on historical prosperity. 2) The materials of Japanese History are selected and arranged for children to understand the process of nation's development not by traditional biography history but by general history. 3) The materials of Geography are selected and arranged for children for them to understand the geographical perspectives of Japan's territory in its entirety.
This study aims to assess the understanding of elementary school sixth graders on the tentativeness of scientific knowledge by using the revised NSKS. Answers to the following questions were sought in a survey: (1) Are there four factors that correspond to each of the four subscales? (2) Which statements did the elementary school sixth graders misunderstand? The revised NSKS was administered to 638 elementary school sixth graders. The instrument contains 24 statements with a Likert scale response format with three choices that include agree, neutral, and disagree. The subscales consist of four areas, namely creative, developmental, parsimonious, and testable. The results of the survey show that: (1) There are four factors that correspond to each of the four subscales; and (2) The sixth graders misunderstood the statement, "There is an effort in science to build as much as possible great laws and theories".