The teaching practice in a university TJSL course is one of the most essential environments for training the actual ability to teach. In order to clarify the process of development, this study aims to show, through a case study of one informant based on PAC (Personal Attitude Construct) analysis, how the image of a good Japanese teacher changes through three stages: before teaching practice; after overseas teaching practice in a secondary school; and after experience as an overseas teaching assistant in a secondary school. The following results are reported in this paper: The image of a good teacher changed in each of the three stages. As for the concrete factors that motivate a student to want to be a Japanese assistant, the activeness of the class, extent of teacher planning, the actual presence of the teacher, and a pleasant atmosphere in the classroom, were indicated. Data provided by the assistant confirmed the strong influence of the mentoring Japanese Language teacher. The results show that there is a different process of development between the student teaching practice phase and the teaching assistant experience stage.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of a reform in history education in Germany in the 1990s by analysing the curriculum "Gesellschaftslehre" in Niedersachsen (the 1993 edition) and textbooks based on it. Through the analysis, the following three points were identified. First, a comparison of the curriculum and textbooks shows that there was a gap between ideal and actual history education. Secondly, history education designed out of a compromise between an ideal and reality took the form of a study of social theories. Thridly, the reform in history education in the 1990s was a realistic one leading to a gradual breakway from traditional history education. As its realization in an actual school educational environment took priority over its ideal, the reform remained insufficient, bringing about moderate change in history education. It is concluded, however, that it played an essential role as a preparation for the later reform, based on constructivism, in the 2000s.
The purposes of this study were to explore the factor structures of achievement motivation in physical education, and to examine the construction of the achievement motivation process model in physical education. A questionnaire designed to assess achievement motivations in physical education learning (153 items on 21 factors/variables) was given to 464 junior high school students (223 boys and 231 girls), 298 high school students (137 boys and 161 girls), making a total of 752 students. The main reaults were as follows: 1) exploratory factor analysis (Maximum Likelihood Method, Direct Oblimin Rotation) revealed 10 factors ("motor ability competence", "teacher", "anxiety about stress-causing situations", "positive activity", "goal-setting", "friend", "self-esteem", "comfortableness", "expectation for improvement in ability", and "serious attitude") related to achievement motivation in physical education; 2) the results of path analysis showed the results of path analysis showed the construction of the Acievement Motivation Process model ([Environment: "teacher" and "friend"]→[Cognition: "expectation for improvement in ability"]→[Emotion: "comfortableness"]→[Action: "goal setting", "diligence and seriousness", "overcoming obstacles"]→[result/evaluation: "motor ability competence"→"self-esteem"]) in physical education.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of hands-on experience on the metacognitive activity of upper secondary school students with regards to the embeddedness of their scientific knowledge. Students in two public upper secondary school classes received instruction concerning the "neutralization titration" in Chemistry(I). One class received experimental instructions, while the other class received control instructions. Students in the class for the experimental instructions designed and carried out experiments in groups to solve a problem based on scientific knowledge. Students in the control class carried out experiments to deduce scieintific knowledge. The main results were as follows: (1) Students' self-estimated scores for their "level of metacognition before the experience" and their "level of metacognition arising from interaction with peers or teachers after the experience" were higher in the experimental class than in the control class. (2) Students in the experimental class did better than students in the control class on transfer tests concerning the embeddedness of scientific knowledge.
This article describes the present situation of home economics education with a particular focus on dietary life education in secondary education in Sri Lanka. Two field surveys were conducted to visit schools and collect textbooks and related materials. Textbooks for home economics, the examination of the General Certificate of Education Advanced-Level, 2006, and some documents published by the National Institute of Education were translated into Japanese and analyzed. The results revealed that home economics was: (1) compulsory for both boys and girls from 6th to 9th grade as "Food and Nutrition", which was one subject of "Practical Technical Skills"; and (2) optional for both boys and girls as "Home Economics" from the 10th to the 13th grade. It was also found that dietary education was focused on the most among various areas and that the environment and consumption were not focused on at all. Regarding the content, it was revealed that the acquisition of sophisticated science-related knowledge was given a primary focus. On the other hand, development awareness of how to lead their own lives guided by their own thinking and judgement was not a goal. However, it was found that ideas to develop culture and to realize the welfare of people and the preservation of the environment were given a primary focus.