The elemental learning objectives to realize a comfortable life were extracted for homemaking education in junior high school. The subject matter of 'making an apron' was picked up for this purpose. The objectives extracted were found to be divided into several groups having different behavioral properties and to give the learning hierarchy structure. The objectives were classified in terms of Gagne and Briggs' theory and psychomotor objectives was found to be in the minority. This result and the critical study of psychomotor learning led to the assumption that CAI would be effective for this subject unit. By reference to the objective structure analyzed, a CAI subject matter was made using the BASIC computer language as a preceding learning. In accorda-nce with making the best use of computer, moving picture, designing and color arrangement were introduced to CAI. Useful suggestions for practicing were given through the test uses of in-service homemaking teachers.
In the previous study (I) ,1 adjusted four typical uses about the term "Teaching Materials" and defined it. Then I clarified that the constructive form of teaching materials was expressed as "teach 〜 in making use of 〜 " and that it was characteristic for teaching materials in physical education that it had a double constructive form. In the present study, I investigate this double constructive form and suggest that it is the general form of teaching materials. In brief, teaching materials generally have the double constructive form. This double constructive form is constructed from basic form and additional form. Basic form is the construction of learning situations. In this form, the teacher considers to construct new leaning activity and through that he considers to give students new viewpoint for learning. Additional form is the construction of essential point for teaching in that learning situations. From the result of these consideration, I investigate the relation between the study of teaching materials and the teaching plan and suggest how to describe the teaching plan. Furthermore, I clarify that the fundamental research theme for the study of teaching materials is to investigate the basic form in each school subject.
The Eco Mark system helps the consumer select a product good based on environmental consideration, thus aiding in the development of environmentally safe products. Some in the fifty-eight kinds of Eco Mark are introduced to the grade school and the junior high school home making textbooks. In view of a environmental education in home economics, it is very important for the students belong to the faculty of education to understand accurately the meaning about the display of Eco Mark. The author investigated their understanding about the meanings. The results were so wrong that the accurate meanings were presented in this paper. The Eco Mark was able to be considered as teaching materials which combined home economics and environmental education. The scopes were described.
In this article, educational value and principles of teaching method in music are studied by investigation of the way to recognize and the process of expression music. By musical experience, the extent and the quality of feelings are developed as bringing up insight which is expressed in the works and experience of feelings of human being. The present results, the principles of teaching method in music education are deducted as follows; (1)Students express feeling experience by composition of music and recognize oneselves feeling. (2) Students can share the feeling of music by recognition of musical structure after appreciation it.
The purpose of this research was to clarify the relationship between Criterion-referenced evaluation and Norm-referenced evaluation in a lower secondary school science curriculum. The data was collected from cumulative guidance records of 1073 students in a lower secondary school in 1993. The main results were as follows: (1)Eighty-percent of the students achieved the criterion in Interest and Attitude, Knowledge and Understanding, and Skills and Expression in Observation and Experiment, but only 65% of the students achieved the criterion in Scientific Thinking. (2) The norm-referenced evaluation showed highest correlation to the criterion-referenced evaluation for each grade in the factor of Knowledge and Understanding. The correlation values ranged from .80 to .84. This is a very high positive correlation. Teachers want to evaluate many facets of students' ability. However, these results show that norm-referenced evaluation still depends upon one criteria, Knowledge and Understanding. We must change our traditional way of evaluation to measure the many facets of students' abilities.