Different introductory periods of English into academic curriculum have been predicted to bring about different developmental processes of motivation for learning English. This study aims to explore the structure and characteristics concerning developmental change of self-determined motivation in learning English. A total of 725 participants, ranging from 5^<th> grade through 11^<th> grade, completed a questionnaire on the motivation and domestic English-learning hours. The data was analyzed for developmental change of their motivational structure, based on the two factors hypothesis by Lens & Vansteenkiste (2008), and the relationship between the learning hours and the motivational types. The results reveal that each motivational type had a different developmental pattern but that the structure kept almost unchanged from 5^<th> grade through 11^<th> grade. However, it was found that the major factor of motivation, which could affect actual attitudes toward learning English, developmentally changed in the opposite direction of internalization as found by Deci & Ryan (1985), from intrinsic to extrinsic. Thus, it was indicated that some motivational types would exert an influence on students' attitudes toward learning English even though they did not change in the process of internalization with grade. It was also found that developmental perspectives were an essential component in the field of studies and educational practices concerning the motivation.
The aims of this study are to investigate the educational significance of note making by students under the continuous instruction at two lower secondary schools. Through analyzing students' notes, we found out that the quality of making notes had gradually improved with the teacher's continuous instruction, and also we observed that the achievement of students who had been instructed making notes showed distinguished changes. We evaluated the qualitative changes of students' skills in making notes and investigated the relationship between students' improved skills and student's achievement. In results from one school we found that there was a correlation between the quality change in their notes and their achieved level of knowledge and thinking in term paper exams. In another school we found from a similar survey a correlation was observed between students' being required to think deeply about their experimental reports and the quality of their notes.
The purpose of this study was to develop instruction for promoting self-regulated learning in science classes. Zimmerman, B. J. formulated a social cognitive model of the development of self-regulatory competence. We analyzed the interrelationship between this model and developing representational competencies. Then we developed instruction based on socio-cultural perspectives to promote self-regulated learning. Results indicate that (1) student's self-regulatory competence was enhanced by improving their skills which combined different modes of representation. (2) self-regulatory competence level was improved by appropriate input by the teacher as well as by collaborative learning. (3) students were able to use knowledge autonomously by constructing a network representation.
The present paper discusses the methods used in foreign language teaching in elementary schools, with reference to the Dutch four-phase model and its applicability to foreign language teaching activities in Japan. The four-phase model supports teachers to plan a lesson unit which makes a smooth transition from input to output. Compared with the Dutch case, foreign language teaching activities in Japan put more emphasis on cultural awareness and attitude toward communication, rather than language proficiency. However, progress from input to output is an equally important step for learners to enjoy communicative activities and furthermore use the language independently in a meaningful situation. A variety of games, quizzes, and other fun activities will have more value if they are used to provide effective stepping stones toward real communication. This paper proposes a flexible use of the four-phase model with example activities which are suited to the Japanese situation.
This paper describes a lesson model for an elementary school class on environmental education. The model is aimed at promoting pupils' understanding of symbiosis. Contents of the lesson are composed of the following, (1) breeding of Japanese rhinoceros beetles and (2) preparing a habitable wood for the beetles. Activities on the lesson are based on experiences from nature. The lesson was carried out with 114 third grade Japanese pupils from 2008 to 2010. A questionnaire was given to the present fourth to sixth grade pupils who took the lesson. The result showed that less than 40 percent of the pupils understood the meaning of symbiosis between the beetles' natural wood habitats and that of symbiosis between man and natural wood habitats. Pupils' understanding of the symbiosis in natural wood habitats was mostly focused on the relationship between beetles and the acorn tree. In regards to the symbiosis between man and natural wood habitats, their understanding of this was focused more on the trilateral relationship between man, animals and plants than on the bilateral relationship between man and animals/plants. The lesson model shows that it is possible to raise the pupils' level of understanding of the relationship among living things. Direct experience of nature as well as experience of nature with a fixed purpose were contributing factors to this positive result.
A new Japanese course of study was implemented in 2011. One important change to the course of study was the increase in the contact hours for elementary science from 350 hours to 405 hours. New observation activities and experiments were also introduced into the new elementary science course. The purpose of this research was to develop a special pre-service teacher training program for elementary science teaching guided by the new course of study and to investigate the effectiveness of the program for elementary teachers in training. The training program consisted of 26 university hours which included observation activities and experiments covering most of the content in the new course of study. A total of 800 teachers in training from various departments and colleges at Ehime University participated through the academic year 2011-2012. The results showed that the participants acquired basic scientific knowledge and competency in observation activities and experiments through the program. Although the program was a non-credit subject the teachers who actively participated in at least 70% of the list of activities were given certificates of completion. The successful outcome of the program shows the importance of improving and maintaining a high quality of pre-service teacher training program for elementary science teaching.
This study reports the current situation and issues in mathematics education research and teacher training in England. Based on surveys of literature and author's own experience, mathematics education research in England is shown to be a discipline which theoretically and empirically investigates phenomena related to mathematics education, and thence creates new knowledge and insights. While implications for daily practice and development are not ignored, researchers' concerns are to engage in rigorous academic research, and discrepancies between research and practice can be observed. Teacher trainers and trainee teachers are also involved in mathematics education at various levels, but it remains a challenge to bridge the gap between research and practice, which should be regarded as an important future task.
This study examined current trends regarding research interests held by subject education researchers in the only Singaporean teacher education institute-the National Institute of Education, Singapore (NIE). Concretely, their keywords on NIE's official website were categorised and those categories were analysed in quantitative and qualitative manners. The results indicated that the subject education researchers have highly practice-oriented research interests. They are mostly concerned with 'how to teach' and 'what to teach', or in other words, with pedagogy, teaching methods, and curriculums. Further, they have a strong interest in children's learning, particularly children's understanding and comprehension of subjects. A major question, however, is whether the research conducted by the subject education researchers so far has led to significant changes in pedagogical practices in Singapore. Additionally, the results suggested that subject education researchers are less likely to put the first priority on understanding children's cognition, relationship with others or internal thinking. Rather, the subject education researchers seem to be more likely to deal with children's understanding as dependent on teaching. Therefore, further studies should be conducted to determine how the researchers rethink and change such views.
This paper first introduces a set of recent trends of U.S. teacher education and educational research, and then discusses its directivity and structural issues that underlie the trends. Historically speaking, teacher education in the U.S. has dynamically shifted its focus as it involved a number of new initiatives and explorations to meet diverse needs of the dynamically changing society. This paper discusses some of the most important trends and discussions in U.S. teacher education and educational research, from which it points to meaningful educational and policy implications for future educational research, teacher education and subject education in Japan and other cultures.