It is one of the essential aims of school music education to develop a sensitiveness to the cultural heritage of the world through an understanding and appreciation of music in its various types and styles. The first thing to be done to achieve this aim is to introduce into school music as one of its main activities a new musical experience of understanding and appreciating Asian folk music, including the traditional music of Japan. This paper gives a brief account of the experimental study which was made for the purpose of finding new teaching materials and methods appropriate for the aim mentioned above.
Against to anti-home economics education for the elementary school program in Japan, the authors aimed to revail pre-conditions which are to be proofs of necessity for home economics education in the elementary schools. Precedure 1) To get generally acceptable home and family life education's objectives and concepts for elementary school level children, domestic and foreign materials were examined. 2) For elementary school level children, home and family life education are carrying out (1) in home life, (2) in other subject areas in school except home economics and (3) in home economics in Japan, today. The actual educational concepts of home and family life in (1) and (2) were picked up from the materials. 3) As the results from 1) and 2), following formulas are expected: A. 1) - ( (1) x (2) )= 0 B. 1) - ( (1) x (2) )>0 The authors' hypothesis was B. The result of B means necessity of home economics education in elementary school. Results and Discussion The authors' hypothesis was proved to be capable to require home economics education in elementary school by this study. The terms to support requirement of home economics in elementary school are: 1) Within 20 concept items which were considered as necessary home and family life education to elementary school level children, only one third items were involved in other educational opportunities farely well except home economics; and another one third items had appeared slightly. Then, at least one third of whole the 20 items should be required to become educational subject. Especially, "Foods" and "Consumer Education" within the lacked one third items were treated scarcely. 2) In addition, the one third of the 20 items which were involved in other educational opportunities except home economics farely well were carried out through pupils were just talking and hearing sitting in the class room. On the contrary, home economics is carried out through doing themselves using realia or picking up to solve actual problems in daily living. 3) Any educational contents which had not fixed subject time location in the school schedule raised educational effect scarcely; for instance, it was learned through "Moral Education" by 1958 that as moral education was considered to be involved in every subjects without fixed period in school schedule, the result was worse as none. That is why home and family life education requires a subject like home economics. 4) Even if two third of the whole 20 items had appeared in other subject areas, these subjects could not involve more contents than they were; because, the educational programs in Japan are called "over amount" in recent years.
With "special properties of the gaseous bodies and their distinction" as the subject of his research, the present writer made inquiry into the influences exercised on the effectiveness of learning through the different processes of learning as shown below: One group learned with the gaseous bodies A (O_2) and B (CO_2) as unknown elements (unknown-inductive). Another group learned with added experiments in which the inflammability of H_2 and the solubility of NH_3 in water were demonstrated (unknown-inductive + added experiments). A third group learned with the prescience of the gaseous bodies A (O_2) and B (CO_2) (prescient-deductive). (1) The tendencies found were as follows: In the learning with the unknown-inductive structure, the methods of the examining the properties of the gaseous bodies, or the methods of science, were learned more thoroughly, while in the learning with the prescient-deductive structure, the properties of the gaseous bodies, or the contents of science, were learned more thoroughly. The present writer will call these tendencies the "effect of the direction of interest in learning (especially recognition)". (2) In addition, as a psychological element, or process, which is related to the learning, another tendency was found which can be called the "tendency of the focalization of the most impressive images."
1 An experimental research on the effects of instructional media to the formation of scientific concept "environment" was carried out with 695 pupils from ten to fifteen years old. 2 Sixteen items were selected as material. (1) interchange, (2) steam-power plant, (3) sewege treatment,(4) mine, (5) incinerator, (6) car, (7) super-express train, (8) paper mill, (9) petroleum industry combinate, (10) cleanser, (11) exploitation, (12) agricultural medicine, (13) plastic, (14) ham & sausage, (15) air-plane, (16) pollution 3 Letter, sound and slide-photograph were adopted as instructional media, then three experimental classes were established. A class: the item was presented through letter. B class; the item was presented through letter and sound. C class; the item was presented through three modia. 4 Pupils wrote their image on the paper as word, phrase or sentence during item presentation for two minutes. 5 Five categories were induced from the analysis of pupil's description. (1) item itself, (2) phenomenon, (3) use, (4) place, (5) the others 6 Numbers of image description per a pupil did not necessarily increased in proportion to its age. 7 Numbers of image description per a pupil took the highest order at B class. This seems to suggest that sound was more effective than other media to increase image description. 8 The close connection was found between the following media and categories. (1) letter-item itself, (2) sound-place, (3) slide-phenomenon.
Today the method of Multi media teaching is expected very much. We have to know some merits of Media. It's necessary that the merits apply to every subject and every chance of teaching. I make researches on next two points in this report. One is to show the merits of Image, the other is to find some conditions of teaching on effective lesson. Each subjects has its own form and contents. So I pick up these four points. (1) Arrangement of educational situation. (2) Process of thought. (3) Structure of each subjects. (4) Structure of Media. These nine patterns which is shown in this report are most basic elements of Multi media teaching.
Children's conception of matter divides into four successive steps,i.e., the naive realistic conception of matter, the conception of substance, that of mass, and the dialectic conception of matter. The naive realistic conception of matter means preschool children's conception that mass existing in the outer world which they perceive is considered to be the real matter as it is. Such conception is not necessarily equal to another form of conception directing to the inner structure of the matter. The present study aimed at investigating these steps of children's conception of matter, and making the guide of the curricular design of science clearer.
This is a basic research study to make clear the cognitive process in children's learning behavior. An analysis of children's behavior and psycho-physiological activities is used as a means to this end. The study was undertaken to measure psycho-physiological activities in undergraduate students, in place of children, as induced by "Selection" to obtain the necessary information for problem solving. Such activities were recorded in successive tests measuring changes in GSR. By means of GSR testing, 1) Selection to obtain the necessary information for problem solving were measured as the subjects watched the stimuli. 2) Various GSRs were recorded for each student, according to differences in problem solving. The experiment was undertaken using two kinds of natural phenomena. The subjects were five undergraduate students (18-and 19-year-old). The students were asked to interpret the changes of phenomena and to infer the factors of phenomena. These materials were presented by means of TV and the concrete. The results are summarized as follows ; 1) There was a significant difference between the appearance of the waves of GSRs induced by selection of the necessary information with a specific viewpoint and by selection of information without a specific viewpoint. 2) There was a significant difference between the unit area rete of the means of GSRs induced by selection of the necessary information without changes of a viewpoint and by selection of the necessary information with changes of a viewpoint.
This experiment was conducted in order to investigate the activity selecting information in problem solving. Two films without voice were presented to subjects. They were all undergraduate students. This first film was presented to set hypothesis. The second film was presented to examine hypothesis. The numbers of fixatoin point in eye movements were used in the analysis. The results of this experiment are summarized as the following. 1) In the first film, eye movements depended upon the changes of natural phenomena. 2) In the second film, eye movements are independent of the changes of natural phenomena. These two results show how to select information changes in the process of problem solving.
Making optimum condition for study will be easy if we can check up whether a learner with surely going through the right course of thinking to accomplish cognition of natural enviroment. In order to check the process two methods seem to be effectual; the one is the analysis of what a child expresses in its speach and behavior, and the other, that of what it doesn't express, its psycho-phisiological activity. In a series of study including this subject we are trying to find out an indicator of the latter method, following up the former one as a clue. This time we began with the first question that arose in a subject who started to solve it of his own free will and was finally led to the cognition of natural enviroment. In order to take up a question, a subject needs to make observations of a phenomenon checking it up with his own similar experiences. Therefore we analysed the psycho-phisiological features of the following two cases; the one is the occasion when a child watched a phenomenon checking it up with similar ones which he had already seen in VTR; and the other the occasion when it watched a plenomenon with no prediction. I calculated the changes of the area of EEG induced from the subject parietal in every minute of the presentation period. From four among five subjects, we could obtain the characteristic patterns of changes which seemed to correspond to the two different cases by mentioned above.