To foster an understanding of the relationship between people and clothes, the Clothing Life section of the Elementary School Home Economics Syllabus includes the relationship between materials and designs of clothes and human physiology, as well as the social significance of clothing, as pupils learn“ how to wear” various garments. Clothing materials worn by humans must be: 1) hygienic, 2) strong and durable, 3) morphologically stable, and 4) manageable. This study focuses on hygiene and examines the development of a continuous wetting and drying property test, a new experiment through which students discover why a) the drying property is necessary to maintain the heat balance within our bodies and b) why it varies among clothing materials. We evaluated the new experimental testing method with existing ones from several perspectives, including the discovery of rules, operability, quantifiability, reproducibility, and the experiment duration. Results revealed that continuous testing of wetting and drying property can reproduce the conditions present when students wear certain items of clothing, enabling the students to discover that both wetting and drying property are concurrently required.
In this study, we propose a teaching method developing reflective thinking aspect of critical thinking in high school physics classes. In the method students judge the certainty of other people’s reasoning and their own reasoning. In order to test the effectiveness of the instructional method, we conducted a lesson with the unit on laws of force and motion in a basic high school physics class of 24 students. The students’ responses on questionnaires and class worksheets showed that our teaching method have positive effect on their reflective thinking.
The principal of new philosophy education is to have students ask questions. In this study, the author explores the structures and characteristics of the new philosophy education curriculum by analyzing an American textbook of philosophy for higher elementary school students. The textbook, Philosophy for Kids includes 40 activities, which are organized into four different branches of philosophy. The activities are designed to get children to become aware of a concept and then to reflect on their own experience. Children discover the complexity of the concept and ask questions. Forty activities were selected and sequenced so that the questions assist the children in making connection between different concepts and their own lives. The children’s questions are the most important part of Philosophy for Kids. This is a departure from the way that philosophy education has been traditionally taught in Japan. The new philosophy education offers a modality of learning in which formulation and asking of questions become the aim, which enables children to learn how to think beyond what they have been taught.
This study is one of a series studies on home economics education. Its aim is to clarify home economics teachers’ rationale for including consumer education and its actual contents at Japanese elementary schools and junior high schools in foreign countries. A study presents the results of a survey study which took place in the period between November 2010 and February 2011. The respondents were teachers in 94 Japanese schools around the world. The belief in the necessity of consumer education was high among the (majority of the) respondents and their aim was to raise pupils’ decision making ability and critical thinking through consumer education. The teachers were using textbooks and internet as the sources of information. In consumer education at elementary schools, teachers made efforts to encourage their pupils think about marks/quality indications and how to behave to obtain what he/she wants. Whereas the teachers at junior high schools explained advantages of a sales plan and its problems, importance of information gathering and its application, and consumer protection systems like cooling-off. On the other hand, problems specific to Japanese schools in foreign countries were identified: 1) teachers were unable to carry out practical activities for consumer education due to poor public safety in foreign countries; 2) teachers’ knowledge of consumer education was insufficient; and 3) teachers’ information gathering ability was limited.
Haiku education in elementary school language arts classes used to focus only on the 5-7-5 structured poetry forms and season words. However, not enough attention has been paid to the moment of sympathetic transaction between nature and humans. Through a discussion of practical lessons from the Pedagogical Association for Children’s Linguistic Ecology, this study suggests a better way of teaching Haiku in the elementary school language arts classes. This association uses two methods –the combination of two things and using the given word– as a basis for Haiku education. The key point of the first method is showing one picture to the children, and asking them to express their feelings at the moment with the visual imagery. The key point of the second method is giving the children one unfamiliar word or phrase, such as rising cloud, and asking them to use their imagination and to apply their reaction to the word or phrase in their writing. This study suggests that after the application of these two methods, children can learn to work creatively beyond formulaic intention and the traditional rules.
The aim of this study is to discuss formation of kambun textbooks in Meiji period, through analyzing kambun textbooks edited by Shiro Akiyama: Chugaku Kambun Tokuhon (edited in 1894, 1896) and Daiichi Teisei Chugaku Kambun Tokuhon (edited in 1900, 1901). A comparison of the two books reveals that educational materials in the textbooks were arranged as a graduated series of lessons. This study shows that during around the Meiji 30’s (1897-1906) period kambun textbooks were designed to gradate educational materials in the textbooks along schooling system at that age. This fact seems to be related with marginalization of Chinese classic materials in Daiichi Teisei Chugaku Kambun Tokuhon.
The purpose of this study was to develop a grid, Class Design Matrix as a tool for elementary school science class lesson creation. The row contains the evaluation categories of science literacy, i.e., comparison, identification of factors, control of variables, and inference. The column contains the stages of science classes, i.e., identifying problems, making hypotheses, conducting experiments or observing, discussing the results / findings, and drawing conclusions. We constructed four levels of evaluation criterions for each cell of the matrix. Twenty elementary school teachers were divided into two groups: the matrix group and the nonmatrix group. All teachers made teaching plans twice and predicted the children’s responses. Teachers in both groups made the first teaching plan without the matrix, but the teachers in the matrix group were provided with the matrix for their second attempt while the teachers in non-matrix group were not provided with the matrix. The results indicated that significantly higher number of children’s responses was predicted for the matrix group’s second attempt. Furthermore, the number of predictions for children’s responses in the matrix group increased in the second attempt for all but one phases of science class: i.e., except with the problem posing phase. These results were interpreted as clear evidence of Class Design Matrix as a useful tool for elementary school teachers making elaborative teaching plans.
The Science Project Study, a newly-introduced science subject at senior high schools, is expected to contain enhanced research activities with the objectives of increasing students’ intellectual curiosity in nature, and developing their scientific thinking and expressiveness. It aims to develop students’ capabilities of and attitudes for doing scientific research, and cultivate a fundamental sense of creativity through collaborative research activities like observations and experiments, setting tasks about science. This study has developed a study program for Science Project Study with a consideration for the quality and capabilities to be enhanced in science and mathematics subjects at senior high schools, and introduces the program at High School A on a trial basis. Students at High School A have previously worked on summarizing or presentation of research results; however, their ability to express themselves―summarizing and writing skills expressing the findings of their self-designed research―had remained a challenge. Considering this situation, I implemented a special lesson stages in which students worked on drawing up evaluation criteria, independently thinking thoroughly, and then discussing in groups, and self and peer evaluated their research finding reports using the criteria. Positive responses to the lesson were obtained from the students and they were found to work more proactively.
This study examined the educational effects of sumo wrestling involving physical contact from the viewpoint of suppression of the venting of aggressive emotion, body awareness, and ability to control muscle output (Tsutsui, Hidaka, & Goto, 2011). The study targeted second- through fifth-grade elementary school children and examined the possible differences among the different grades. To be more precise, the effects of sumo wrestling in eight lessons were evaluated using a questionnaire, and studies on body awareness and maximum grip strength. The findings indicated that sumo wrestling increases the ability to control muscle output of children in all grades, raised body awareness and suppressed the venting of aggressive emotion. Second grade pupils are found to be the most susceptible to the intended educational effects of sumo wrestling as the number of their responses were the highest in all three aspects.
The purpose of this action research study is to develop teaching methods of reading critique essays to help learners think profoundly of the author’s perspectives and make it meaningful for their own lives. The findings revealed that the following four processes to be effective when an instructor plans a lesson from Reader Theory perspective. First, learners can learn to be aware of their own perspectives by writing out their own ideas concerning the theme of the critique essay and relating or comparing their perspective to that of the author or their classmates. Second, learners can develop an understanding of the author’s perspectives by identifying the author’s reasoning. Third, learners can relate the reading to their own lives by writing their interpretation of the content to the phenomena of modern society. Fourth, learners can be encouraged to deepen and broaden their recognition of the critique by relating or comparing their own ideas about the author’s perspective to their peers’.