The purpose of this study is to investigate changes of theory of history education and clarify the structures of theoretical history education based on constructionism in Germany through the analysis of some typical history lessons.
From the analysis of history lessons three factors of the theory of history education are elucidated. First, traditional theories of history education are composed of factors of “individuality”. Second, the theory of history education is based on the social sciences which provide various historical interpretations through learner’s empathy from “multiple perspectives”. Finally, the main factors of the theory based on constructionism consist of theoretical framework on “historical meaning building”.
It is concluded that the changes of theory of history education in Germany are effected by the principle of “multiple perspectives”. Also, the theory of history education based on constructionism reconstructs historical perspectives and interpretations regarding the various historical materials.
The purpose of this article is to clarify the view of scholastic ability of students in upper secondary History Education in Germany through the analysis of the EPA-Geschichte published by KMK (The Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany) for history in the abitur-examination. The article shows that the EPA-Geschichte regards history lessons as an opportunity for historical narration and the examination of history as further opportunity for historical narration, since History Education aims to foster the ability for a well-grounded construction of history through the interpretation of historical materials, examination of historical descriptions, and production of historical descriptions in upper classes of grammar schools.
The authors have developed a digital picture book as teaching material which can be applied in a Home Economics guidance class in elementary school, within the government guidelines for teaching, and tested under real-class conditions. In the guidance class, “to know the 2-years learning contents” is one of its aims. So the authors digitized the picture book to make teaching more effective by conveying images, by attaching both dynamic and static pictures to present concrete learning contents. 32 elementary schools cooperated with testing the teaching material which was modified after the initial prototype evaluation, and teachers and students were asked of their opinion. Over 90 percent of the teachers said “the material made it easier to explain”, “it was easy to operate”, suggesting it is suitable as teaching material. Students also became more interested in Home Economics. Before, students’ perception of the subject was that of “food” and “clothing”, but after the experimental class their image of the subject had broadened. This means the teaching material made it possible to promote the understanding of content, as well as validating the effectiveness of the teaching material.
The present study investigates the effects of lexical and grammatical ability on reading of Japanese texts by native Chinese speakers learning Japanese. Tests of lexical and grammatical ability, and on-line self-paced reading for phrasal parts of a text were conducted on 127 native Chinese speakers majoring in Japanese at a university in China. Based on their test scores of lexical and grammatical ability, these participants were divided into three groups. Processing speed of each phrase-based part in a text was analyzed among higher, middle and lower groups divided by lexical and grammatical ability. The results show the following three points: 1) lexical ability had a greater influence on reading speeds of phrasal parts in a text than grammatical ability; 2) lexical ability had a significant contribution to reading speeds of not only an independent single phrase but also sequences of continuous phrases; 3) the effect of grammatical ability was limited to some phrases of complex structure or parts with a shift in semantic context.
Under the Taisho’s Freedom of Education Policy the Japanese were free to choose what to teach and learn with its education system relatively independent from the government intervention. In 1910, two schools of thought existed – the School of Form and the School of Content – both of which had their strong and weak points. In 1919, Kisaburo Akita advocated his own original form, proposing “The Creational Reading Method” of structuring how best to read and comprehend sentences. “The Creational Reading Method” of “self-learning” focused specifically on the education of children. He created “The Method of the Author’s Supposition” where children would consider the author specifically in order to understand the meaning of sentences more precisely and deeply. He transferred to the Elementary School Attached to Nara Women’s Kotoshihan School from the Elementary School Attached to Shiga Shihan School bringing with him, in 1920, his method of reading. He combined Takeji Kinoshita’s “The Way of Study Method” with his own “The Creational Reading Method”. “The Creational Reading Method” was thus fully developed through Akita’s research of “The Creational Reading Method” during his time at the Elementary School Attached to Nara Women’s Kotoshihan School.
By examining the anxiety of students and teachers involved in the Foreign Language Activities this study tries to clarify what training can be given to ease the anxiety of those who are studying to become elementary school teachers. Examination of previous research showed that many elementary school teachers have difficulty and feel anxiety in teaching the newly introduced Foreign Language Activities. Though many regard their insufficient English proficiency as the source of the anxiety, there is not enough in-service training to develop their English skills. A survey conducted with 329 university students who took a onesemester class on how to teach Foreign Language Activities in the academic years 2010, 2011 or 2012 revealed the same anxiety about insufficient English proficiency felt by these university students. To ease their anxiety and create confidence to teach Foreign Language Activities, speech practice is proposed as an activity as a way to help familiarize them with speaking English and allow them gain experience in using English in the classroom.