The instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the multielemental analysis of the freshwater diatoms taken from the head and the lower areas of Tama river. Dry samples of the diatoms were irradiated for 1 minute (for the measurement of short lived nuclides) by pneumatic tube of TRIGA-II reactor of Musashi Institute of Technology, and 12 hours (for the measurement of long lives nuclides) in F ring of TRIGA-11 reactor of Rikkyo University. The analytical results of 20 elements in the samples were obtained, and the concentration of Ti showed high values in all the sample. Since it is considered that Ti is absent in algae, these high values indicate that apprecible amounts of river sediment were contained in the samples. Therefore, the analytical results were corrected for Ti contents in the samples. The concentrations of Mg, K, Zn, Mn and Co in the diatoms showed no difference between the two sampling points. The concentrations of Cr, V, As and Sb in the diatoms, however, showed difference between the two sampling points, depending on the river water quality. In Stenopsyche grisepennis, on the other hand, the concentrations of Mn and Co depend on the river water quality, and the concentrations of Cr depend on the amount of diatoms staying in the body. The concentrations of V, As and Sb in the Stenopsyche griseipennis are considered to depend both on the amount of diatoms and river sediment staying in the body.
Alcohol extracts freshly prepared from gamma-irradiated and unirradiated potatoes were tested for the ability to induce dominant lethals in BDF1mice. Male mice were given 0.5 ml of extract twice a day, p.o., for 7 days and then mated with untreated female mice. Female mice were sacrificed on about the 13th day of pregnancy. No significant difference was observed in the number of living implants between the group treated with extract prepared from unirradiated potatoes and that treated with the extract from 150 Gy (15 krad) irradiated potatoes.
Six elements, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Se and Zn, in the metallothionein fractions from liver of rat injected various metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Se and Zn) were analyzed by neutron activation analysis and were investigated metal binding of it. The concentrations of Cd and Zn were increased by administration of Cd and those of Co and Se were also increased by administration of the each element. On the contrary, the concentration of Cd and Cu were decreased by administration of Se. It may be considered that Co and Se are attached to metallothionein, if its protein is present and the presence of Se influence the binding of Cu and Cd to metallothionein, further it also influence Cd-thionein production.
Gastrointestinal transit in the chicken was investigated by using198Au-colloid as a marker. Gastrointestinal transit was determined following administration of a198Au-colloid solution (370 kBq (10μCi), 0.5 ml) into the proventriculus by measuring the distribution of radioactivity in the gastrointestine. Most of198Au-colloid administered into the proventriculus was transfered instantly to the gizzard and subsequently, some part of it quickly to the duodenum and the upper segment of the jejunoileum. A considerable quantity of198Au-colloid in the duodenum, the upper and middle segment of the jejunoileum regurgitated to the gizzard. 198Au-colloid transfered to the caecum was retained for a long time (more than 48 hours) in these segments. A part of198Au-colloid was found in the feces 90 to 120 minutes after administration into the proventriculus and the greater part of it was excreted into the feces 24 to 48 hours. Subcutaneus administration of acetylcholine (2 mg/kg) increased the gastrointestinal transit but atropine (2 mg/kg) decreased.
Measurement of serum concentration of trypsin by RIA-Gnost Trypsin kit (Hoechst-Japan) was evaluated. The clinical usefulness of measuring serum trypsin level in diabetic patients was assessed. The measurement of trypsin using the radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit revealed good precision, and reproducibility with intraassay error ranging from 3.6 to 5.5% in C.V. corresponding to mean trypsin concentration of 236.5-838.7 ng/ml and interassay error ranging from 8.1 to 11.1 %. Tests for recovery and dilution were satisfactory for clinical use. Clinical materials included 35 normal subjects, 88 diabetics, 22 patients with liver diseases, 3 with acute pancreatitis, 7 with chronic pancreatitis and 3 with chronic renal failure. Serum trypsin concentration in normal controls was 157.6±59.9 ng/ml (m+1 S.D.) . Diabetic patients treated with diet therapy alone revealed serum trypsin level of 203.6±74.8 ng/ml (n=50) . In diabetics treated with sulfonil urea serum trypsin was 171.3±83.0 ng/ml (n=25) . In patients receiving insulin serum trypsin level was 90.5±49.0 ng/ml (n=13) . In patients with liver diseases, acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis and chronic renal failure serum trypsin concentration were 236.9±88.0, 520.1±80.0, 113.0±75.6, and 2557±2771 respectively. Our results may indicate impaired pancreatic exocrine function in patients with severe diabetes mellitus. Increased serum trypsin level in diabetics treated with diet therapy may be due to stimulated excretion of trypsin resulted from restricted food intake. However, further study in larger number of patients is needed.