A combined method of dithizone-extraction and carbon powder column adsorption was applied to concentrate trace amounts of copper (II) and mercury (II) in natural water samples before neutron activation analysis. The sample solution was adjusted to pH 1.0 with nitric acid, an aliquot of which was taken in a 500 cm3 separating funnel and then 5.0 cm3 of 0.01% dithizone-benzene and 25 cm3 of n-hexane were added. The mixture was shaken for 10 min and stood for 30 min. After the aqueous phase was discarded, another aliquot of the sample solution was added. The above procedure was repeated until the treatment of the sample solution (1.00 dm3) was completed. The organic phase was then flown through the column (6 mmφ×50 mmh) containing carbon powder, and the resulting column was dried. The monitor containing 10 μg of mercury or copper was also prepared according to the above procedure. The samples and monitors were irradiated together in a pneumatic tube of JRR-3. After cooling, copper and mercury were determined by γ-spectrometry using64Cu, 197Hg, respectively. The recovery of trace metal ions obtained by this method was more than 99%, and the present method was found to be applicable to the preconcentration of copper (II) and mercury (II) in natural water samples.
The irradiation characteristics for a plate source of90Sr 222GBq (6Ci) were examined with the blue cellophane dosimeter and the thermoluminescence dosimeter. The90Sr source used has the active area of 35×20mm2 and the surface concentration of 31.5 GBq (0.85 Ci) /cm2. The high dose rate of 1.1 kGy (1.1×105 rad) /h was obtained at the distance of 5 cm from this source. At that time, the isodose curve determined by the blue cellophane was similar to a circle. The peak in depth dose curve was fairly displaced to the shallow direction in comparison with that obtained from the irradiation with an electron beam accelerator (2 MeV) . The calculated dose rate attains to 800 kGy (8.0×107 rad) /h at the distance of 5cm from the source when the infinite plate source with the maximum surface concentration (1.51 TBq (40.7 Ci) /cm2) is placed on a plane.
In order to design a rice irradiator with mass flow rate of 50 to 100 ton/h and with irradiation of 100 to 300 Gy (10 to 30 krad), the optimum dimensions of the irradiator were de-rived from the relation between the dimension and processing efficiency (mass flow rate/total activity of gamma-ray source) . The main results are: (1) processing efficiency depended on the incidence efficiency of gamma-ray energy into grain, the absorption efficiency of the energy in grain and the required dose of grain, (2) there was no difference in the optimum values of dose uniformity of grain irradiated in each irradiation region, (3) the optimum length of the source was 0.644 times of length of the region, (4) the optimum values of processing efficiency and dose uniformity of grain were 5.925×10-9 g/h/Bq and 1.57, respectively.
Cardiac function was studied with Scintiview in 107 cases, 24 normal and 83 affected cases, and the following results were obtained. (1) Better data were obtained with converging collimeter than with parallel collimeter in cardiac study. (2) Red blood cells were sufficiently labeled with99mTc using stannous chloride as reductant, and it was proven to be applicable to measurement of circulation blood volume. (3) Pulmonary circulation time and the systemic circulation time calculated from time activity curve, >9.0 seconds and >25 seconds, respectively, were considerd abnormal prolongation. (4) Cardiac output index (cardiac output/circulation blood volume), <1.10 was considered decreased cardiac output. (5) Stroke volume index ( (stroke volume/circulation blood volume) ×100), <1.70 was considered decreased stroke volume. (6) Ejection fraction, <60% was considered decreased left ventricular wall motion. (7) Cardiac function index (cardiac output index×ejection fraction), <80 was considered decreased cardiac performance.