In order to quantitatively evaluate the internal exposure of tritium(3H or T), both the reactivity of exchangeable and non‐exchangeable Organically Bound Tritium(OBT) must be observed at body temperature. In this study, we assumed the model of exchangeable OBT, and the hydrogen isotope exchange reaction(T-for-H exchange reaction) between L-tyrosine and HTO vapor was observed at 25 and 36 ℃ in the gas-solid system. Applying the A″-McKay plot method to the data obtained in the reaction, the rate constants(k) of the functional groups in the material were obtained and Arrhenius plots were also drawn. In addition, from the Arrhenius plots in the range of 50 - 70 ℃, the estimated rate constants(kex) of 36 and 25 ℃ were obtained by using extrapolation method. Comparing k and kex, following three matters have been found in the T-for-H exchange reaction. (1)Because the value of k was similar to kex, extrapolation method is useful. (2)Applying Taft's equation, polar and steric substituent constants of C7H7O were obtained. (3)The method used in this work is useful for quantitative clarification of the reactivity of the T-for-H exchange reaction, and for the estimation of the internal exposure of exchangeable OBT.
The improvement of radiation education to medical staffs is required in particular after the nuclear accident at the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station; however, the comprehension level of radiation by medical doctors has not been elucidated. Here we analyzed the understanding and risk perception of radiation by the medical residents by the results of the review examination and the questionnaire in the radiation education course for them from 2011 to 2014. Although the health effect of radiation was relatively well understood compared to the basics, safe handling, and legal issues, some primary and simple questions in all areas resulted in exceptionally low scores. The risk perception of radiation was high in the nuclear power generation and low in the medical radiation, which appeared stable in every year and similar to the radiation risk perception by other respondents. These findings suggest that the repeated education course for medical staffs is absolutely necessary to make them better understand radiation and updated continuously.
When we calculate transport of photon and electron in matter, energy is transferred from photon to electron and vice versa, then number of photon and electron increases quickly. This kind of calculation is conveniently done using Monte Carlo method rather than using deterministic method. We describe on the contents and use of Monte Carlo photon and electron transport code in this article. The description is mainly on EGS5 code, which authors have been participate in the development.
The studies on molecules adsorbed on solid surfaces are significant not only for basic interests of surface science but also for industrial applications such as catalysts. This article provides the overview of the neutron molecular spectroscopy(inelastic scattering) for such adsorption systems. We briefly mention the principle of the instruments suitable for surface spectroscopy and analyses of spectra, and show the actual vibrational and rotational spectra of simple molecules such as hydrogen on metal surfaces and metal oxide surfaces. These data bring plenty of information on the environments and electronic states around the adsorbed molecules. The merits of neutron spectroscopy for surface science is demonstrated.