RADIOISOTOPES
Online ISSN : 1884-4111
Print ISSN : 0033-8303
ISSN-L : 0033-8303
Volume 14 , Issue 6
Showing 1-19 articles out of 19 articles from the selected issue
  • Masakazu SAKAGUCHI, Katsuhide MANABE
    1965 Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages 439-444
    Published: November 15, 1965
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The mechanism of the diffusion of sulfur atom of hydrogen sulfide into zinc sulfide (amorphous and crystalline) in the temperature range from 500°to 1150°C has been investigated by a tracer technique using H235S. The results showed that for both amorphous and crystalline zinc sulfide samples, the diffusion rates (number of atoms/m2) of sulfur atom from hydrogen sulfide to zinc sulfide increased rapidly at about 1000°C. From these facts it was suggested that the diffusion rate at the solid-gas interface related to the phase-transition of solid (i.e. Hedvall effect) . To estimate the distribution state in the bulk of the sulfur atom diffusing from gas-phase (hydrogen sulfide) to solid-phase (fired zinc sulfide) on firing, the fired zinc sulfide sample was successively dissolved in hydrochloric acid and then the disappearance state of the sulfiur atom diffused was measured. As a result, it was found that in the case of amorphous sample, the diffused sulfur atom distributed uniformly throughout the bulk; while in the case of crystalline sample it was not uniform but localized mostly on the surface region of zinc sulfide particles.
    Download PDF (577K)
  • Zin'itiro HATUDA, Susumu NISHIMURA
    1965 Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages 445-450
    Published: November 15, 1965
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Determination of the content of uranium, thorium and potassium in rocks is a matter of great concern for the geologist. The usual method, using the gamma-ray pulse height analyser, requires not only relatively expensive apparatus, but also considerable time. This is especially true when the samples have a feeble radioactivity, such as in rocks. In this paper, described is a first approach of obtaining the content of uranium and thorium by means of the parallel measurements with alpha-scintillation counter and a radioscope. As an example, variations in the content of uranium and thorium across igneous contacts were traced with continuous samples by the use of this method.
    Download PDF (553K)
  • Takami KOYANAGI
    1965 Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages 451-456
    Published: November 15, 1965
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper using the same experimental arrangement as the 1 st report of this study, the absorption curves for the absorbers composed of two kinds of materials are obtained. As the absorbers, thin sheets of celluloid, Al, Fe, and Sn are used, and these materials are corn-biped in three pairs, celluloid-Fe, Sn-Fe and Al-Sn. These sheets are superposed in the following three ways. The 1 st way, the sheets of material A and B are separated into two layers and put A on B-layer, the 2 nd, put B on A-layer, and the last one, the sheets are mixed homogeniously.
    The β-ray absorption curves for these three ways of superposing differed each other. The curves for the mixed sheets are observed about the average value of the former two.
    The curves for the mixed sheet of A and B depend on the mixing ratio of them. And the equivalent atomic number (named) Zmix can be obtained by the following equation.
    Zmix=ZlAlBl+AmBm+…/AlBl+AmBm+…
    where Zl, Zm, …: The atomic number of the materials l, m, …
    Bl, Bm, …: The number of atoms,
    Al, Am, …: The atomic weight.
    The absorption curves for the mixture having the equivalent atomic number Zmix, coincides with the curve of the exist substance having the same atomic number as Zmix.
    Download PDF (679K)
  • Junji SAKURAI, Shinkichi SHIBATA, Kazuo YAMAKOSHI
    1965 Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages 457-462
    Published: November 15, 1965
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The following characteristics of glass materials suitable for liquid scintillator container vials and shell tubes of external cathode G-M counters are discussed: (1) natural radioactivities in glass materials, (2) optical transmittance and index, (3) phosphorescence emitted from glass materials excited by visible light, (4) chemical resistance of glass materials to scintillator solvents e.g. toluene, (5) suitability for shell tubes of G-M counters. Particularly, correlations between counting rates in 14C energy region and potassium contents in various glasses are experimentally determined. Phosphorescence emitted from Superrex Glass (Vycor equivalent) is observed, whose decay constant is ea. 30 sec. Higher counting rate is obtained for a uranium glass than a quartz, but no decaying component of them is observed. The alkaline component of a glass solved into hot toluene is not detected within errors of the measurement. As the results of the mentioned above a new glass (LB-47) for container vials of liquid scintillators is produced, whose contents of potassium oxide is 0.0116 (1±0.07) weight %. In the case of 200 ee vials made of LB-17 the background counting rate caused from 40K in the glass is estimated to be ca. 0.4 epm in the quarter of 14C energy region. While, , for shell tubes of external cathode G-M counters a glass, named LB-96, is newly developed. It contains potassium oxide of 0.014-0.020 weight % and has specific resistance of 7.5-15×1011 (ohmcm) at 10°C.
    Download PDF (726K)
  • Shichiro MITANI
    1965 Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages 463-467
    Published: November 15, 1965
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A method has been developed by which liquid scintillators of high and uniform scintillation efficiency can be prepared. The procedure is as follows: total amount of solutes required for the number of liquid scintillators to be prepared is weighed at a time and dissolved in an adequate solvent at a slightly greater concentration than normal scintillator; required volume of this solution is measured and poured into each scintillator vessel: solvent is then distilled off from these vessels under high vacuum, solutes corresponding to the scintillator volume of each vessel thus remain in it; then required volume of scintillator solvent is distilled into each vessel under high vacuum, and after tip-off vacuum-sealed liquid scintillators are obtained. These liquid scintillators are very uniform in solute concentration and have negligibly small amount of dissolved air. Therefore, they have higher and more uniform scintillation efficiency than those obtained by other methods. It is believed to serve for more accurate measurements of low energy and low level radioactivity.
    Download PDF (607K)
  • Hidemasa KATO, Hideaki SEINO
    1965 Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages 468-474
    Published: November 15, 1965
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In activation analysis by using a reactor, the interference of competing reaction often becomes troublesome. For example, in the activation analysis of manganese in iron, in which 55Mn (n, γ) 56Mn reaction is used, another reaction 56Fe (n, p) 56Mn also produces manganese-56. Therefore, it is necessary to know the production ratio of both reactions. These quantities depend on neutron spectrum in the reactor.
    We derived a formula of activation analysis for competing reactions, and checked the practical usefulness of this method. The method described here has the follwing advantages:
    (1) Activation analysis accompanied with competing reaction is practicable.
    (2) The technique is very simple, because it is necessary only to measure cadmium ratio.
    (3) Since competing products can accurately be measured by this method, high neutron density near the reactor core can positively be used for activation analysis.
    Download PDF (729K)
  • Yoshiki WADACHI, Mitsuo MURAMATSU
    1965 Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages 475-479
    Published: November 15, 1965
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Experiments have been done in an effort of finding out the experimental conditions suitable for making radioactive dust samples, which consist of charcoal powders and radioactive isotopes adsorbed on them and which are useful for experiments on contamination of solid surfaces and its removal. Carrier-free radioisotopes including 144Ce, 147Pm, and 60Co have been tested as the adsorbing species which can be retained upon washing with water and solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) above and below its critical micelle concentration (CMC) .
    It has been found that 144Ce and 147Pm are more suited than 60Co for labeling charcoal powders for soiling solid surfaces to be washed with water. For washing with SDS of below CMC, 60Co is better suited than 144Ce and 147Pm. On the other hand, no radioisotopes, so far examined, have proven to be useful reliably for labeling charcoal for contaminating solid surfaces to be washed with SDS of above CMC. When charcoal powders were washed with such a solution, flowing out was observed remarkably with the isotopes, especially in the cases of 144Ce and 147Pm.
    It has been concluded that the radioisotope best suited for labeling pulverous sample should reasonably depend on what conditions would be adopted for washing the solid surfaces to be soiled with the labeled sample.
    Download PDF (522K)
  • Shigeo SEKI, Ken NISHIHATA, Akiyo SHIGEMATSU
    1965 Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages 480-486
    Published: November 15, 1965
    Released: July 21, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    14C-β, γ-propargyl alcohol and 14C-α-propargyl alcohol were synthesized from 14C-1, 2-acetylen and 14C-paraformaldehyde respectively, under the ordinary pressure. Some 14C, 3H-double labeled derivatives such as p-propargyloxybenzaldehydethiosemicarbazone, N- (p-propargyloxyphenyl) N'-allyl thiourea, γ-iodopropargyl-o-tolyl ether and 7-iodopropargyl-p-chlorophenylearbinol were synthesized from these alcohols.
    These are of use for demonstrating a relationship between a chemical structure of acetylenic compounds and it's pharmacological action or the site of bioactivity of acetylenic compounds in vivo.
    Download PDF (728K)
  • Kazuo TAKADA, Yoshiki WADACHI, Yoshito YAMAOKA, Shun NOGUCHI, Mitsuo M ...
    1965 Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages 487-492
    Published: November 15, 1965
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Decontamination effects have been compared between various decontaminants for cleaning cotton cloth soiled with ionic radioisotopes, including 60Co, 32P, and 131I, in the presence of oily materials. It has been found that the 60Co contamination is removed more easily when it is made after soiling the cloth with non-polar hydrocarbon than when it is done before. On the contrary, larger decontamination effect was observed with the cloth soiled first by radioisotope followed by polar oil, such as octadeeanol-1 or tripalmitin, than with the cloth soiled in the reverse order.
    The mechanism of 60Co contamination seems to involve ionic processes. The contaminant was removed easily by replacing it with simple cations or by combining it with sequestrating agent. Thus, the best way to remove it was found to be the isotopic exchange with nonradioactive cobaltous ion or the treatment of soiled cloth with EDTA solution. Little effects on decontamination were found with detergent solutions of below CMC (critical micelle concentration), while above CMC the contaminant was removed considerably. Addition of inorganic salts to detergent solutions caused an increased decontamination due possibly to the enhanced micelle formation and to the ion-exchanging character of the salts.
    Such anionic contaminant as 32P or 131I exhibits weak attractive force to cellulose and, accordingly, is removed easily even with water. Little or negligible effects on decontamination have been found with addition of various detergents to water, suggesting the unlikelihood of special interaction, which has been considered for explaining 60Co contamination and its removal.
    Download PDF (660K)
  • Nobuo OKAJIMA, Moriyuki YAMAMOTO, Tomoyuki MIZUSHINA
    1965 Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages 493-497
    Published: November 15, 1965
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Fundamental experimental investigation was done to make clear of several problems in determining surface moisture contents in 10-15cm depth of plane and homogeneous building materials by neutron surface moisture gauge.
    Fast neutrons emitted by the source of radium/beryllium 5mc, are preliminarily moderated by paraffin wax, and moderated neutrons are radiated into medium in which moisture contents to be measured.
    As fast neutron moderated to some extent before radiated into medium, effective measuring volume of medium is reduced, that is, effective depth is controlled to some surface thickness in medium concerned fit to measure surface moisture contents. In this experimental investigation, relations between moisture contents and thickness of samples are checked by changing the thickness of paraffin wax moderators, being moisture contents of samples kept low. Samples consist of aluminum mould boxes containing sugar and standard sand mixed to keep desired moisture contents, except concrete samples of no mould boxes.
    Mixing ratio is determined by calculation based on moisture contents in one molecule of sugar.
    In our determination of moisture contents in the sample of 15cm thickness and 10% moisture content, accuracy is kept within ±1.5%, taking count time 5 minutes in one measurement.
    Download PDF (486K)
  • Yoshishige SATO, Mari SAKUMA, Tadao TAKAHASHI
    1965 Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages 498-503
    Published: November 15, 1965
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The distribution of 14C-amino acid (14C-glycine, 14C-isoleucine, 14C-valine, 14C-aspartic acid and 14C-glutamic acid) has been studied by means of autoradiographic method with whole animal slice section of 10 days old baby mouse.
    The distribution pattern of these amino acids seemed to be divided into two types. One was in the case, 14C-isoleucine, 14C-valine and 14C-glycine being injected, their radioactivity in all tissues reached the high level at 7 hrs after administration and continued over 96 hrs. The other was in the case, 14C-aspartic acid and 14C-glutamic acid being injected, the intense activity was noted at 3 and 24 hrs., respectively, but it gradually disappeared and scarcely detected in tissues at 96 hrs. Besides, it was of interest that in the early period after injection 14C-aspartic acid and 14C-glutamic acid, specific and dense localization of 14C occurred in the skeleton.
    Download PDF (9827K)
  • Goro URAKUBO, Yasumasa KIDO, Akira HASEGAWA
    1965 Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages 504-507
    Published: November 15, 1965
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Ordinary paper chromatographic methods for the purity test were studied on some kinds of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with 131I and 125I, using various kinds of developing solvents.
    Among these solvents tested, the followings were regarded as the most suitable for purity test;
    for sodium radio-iodide: ethanol: water: benzene (65: 35: 1) and methanol: water (75: 25), for radioactive triiodothyronine: n-butanol: dioxane (4: 1) saturated with 2N-ammonium carbonate, for radioactive sodium o-iodolaippurate: n-butanol: ethanol (4: 1) saturated with 2N-ammonium carbonate.
    Download PDF (352K)
  • Tsuneo SASAKI, Masao KANEKO
    1965 Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages 508-513
    Published: November 15, 1965
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In order to study the cerebral hemodynamics in the cases of intracranial vascular and space occupying lesions, the RI-cerebrography were applied and the results were compared with the cerebral angiographic findings.
    131I-hippurate (hippuran) was used as a tracer in a dose of 400 μc. A 3-channeled external measurement technique for graphic demonstration of the passage of a tracer through the neck vessels and both cerebral hemisphere was carried out at the same time.
    Two matched scintillation probes were placed attached to the temporal region at the site of syphon. Another probe with slit collimator was placed in front of the fore-neck. Head was shielded with lead bricks from other part of the body.
    The normal showed two cerebral tracings to be superimposable and the peak was lower in the diseased side in all 3 cases of arterio-venous fistula, 5 of 8 cerebral arterial thrombosis and 3 of 11 brain tumor and suspected cases. One case of meningioma exceptionally showed abnormal higher peak on the tumor side.
    Compensating blood supplies to the intracranial vascular lesions were well demonstrated in the equality of the curve with the normal side, especially in older cases from the onset of the disease.
    One case of radical neck dissection showed lower peak on the resected side in one month after operation, the same case and the other were both symmetric in 2 months later.
    Hippuran is excreted in short time, and the procedure itself is simple, therefore, cerebrogram seemed to be less harmful for most of the cases. It likely promised to demonstrate asymmetries in the curves, usually hemodynamics on each side were examined by the RI-cerebrogram.
    Download PDF (10665K)
  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    1965 Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages 514-517
    Published: November 15, 1965
    Released: July 21, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (344K)
  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    1965 Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages 518-521
    Published: November 15, 1965
    Released: July 21, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (353K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1965 Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages 522-524
    Published: November 15, 1965
    Released: July 21, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (305K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1965 Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages 525-533
    Published: November 15, 1965
    Released: July 21, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (1152K)
  • Joseph Sternberg
    1965 Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages 534-542
    Published: November 15, 1965
    Released: July 21, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (1259K)
  • 1965 Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages A651-A192
    Published: November 15, 1965
    Released: July 21, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (7387K)
feedback
Top