The preparation of148Gd, a low energy α emitter, from proton-bombarded europium target was studied. Though the radiochemical procedures at first step was the reduction of europium with zinc amalgam followed by the coprecipitation with barium sulphate as the previous study, the purification of gadolinium was also carried out with cation ion exchange resin. The existence of153Gd and152Gd was gamma-spectrometrically identified in the purified gadolinium fraction together with that of148Gd by a spectrometry. The nuclear reaction to form such nuclides and the method to obtain148Gd suitable as a tracer for trivalent actinoide nuclides are discussed.
The target of241Am irradiated with thermal neutron flux was subjected to the cation ion-exchange resin separation to separate242Cm, fission products and target241Am. The optimum conditions for ion-exchange chromatography was examined with cation exchange papers and by paper electrophoresis. The automatic recording device was applied to ascertain α emitters in the effluent. The radiochemically pure242Cm was obtained easily by this study.
A study is described for the carrier precipitation of μg quantities of inorganic elements with hydrated manganese dioxide from nitric acid solution using radioactive tracers. It is found that trace elements were classified in 5 groups, i.e., W (VI) andAs (V) -collected completely from 0.01 to 6 N-, Ir (VI) andSb (V) -collected completely from 0.01 to 1 N decreasing their recovery gradually with the elevation of acidity-, Fe (III) andIn (III) -collected completely from 0.01 to 1 N decreasing their recovery drastically with the elevation of acidity-, Co (II), Cu (II) andZn (II) -collected above pH 4.0 decreasing their recovery abruptly at lower pH, and below pH 1 no entrainment occurred-and monovalent alkaline metal ions-no entrainment occurred from any solution-. The effects of the presence of competitive ions and complexing reagents were investigated and discussion was given to the results.
Adsorption of95Zr-95Nb on 13 fishing-net samples (4 different materials) from sea water was measured at various time in order to investigate the chemical behavior of95Zr-95Nb and to obtain data for estimation of the external radiation dose from95Zr-95Nb released into sea water and adsorbed on fishing-net. Percent adsorption (A) increased rapidly with time (t) and began to level off at about 10-25 hr. Relation between A and t is given by an equation A=k⋅tn, where k is a constant and n was found to be 0.20-0.71. The values of A varied in the range of 10-80% at 50 hr equilibration with thickness (denier, D) of the thread and with material of the samples, showing a relation A= k′⋅D-1/2, where k′is a material-dependent constant. Since D-1/2is proportional to the surface area of the sample of a unit weight, A is proportional to the surface area. As to the kind of material from which the sample was made, a sequence of A, nylon> “Kuremona” (polyvinyl alcohol fiber) >polyehtylene> “Lux” (polypropylene), was obtained.
Characteristic features of a new portable radioisotope X-ray fluorescence analyzer and an experimental study on its applications are described. This apparatus consists of a probe and an electronic unit, whose weight is 1.7 kg and 7 kg, respectively. The general method of X-ray spectral analysis is the energy analysis using a proportional counter and a single channel pulse height analyzer. X-ray filters are used when it is necessary. In practical application, characteristic X-rays of wanted elements can be selected by a rotary switch. Analysis of alloys, mineral and other samples has been studied. Detection limits of the order of 10 ppm have been obtained in the analysis of Cu in aluminum alloy, V, Zr, Mo and W in alloy steel.In the practical application of alloy sorting, the difference of 0.2% of above mentioned elements can be discriminated in the short time from one to three seconds. Four and five seconds are required for the discrimination of the difference of 1% for Cr and Ni in alloy steel. In the analysis of mineral samples, . linear calibration line without matrix correction can be ordinarily applied for the determination of element above 1 % in concentration. Relative error is 10% for the element 1 % in mean concentration, relative error below 3 % for the element above 15 % in mean concentration. In the determination of Mn in aqueous solution and Mn deposit on a filter paper, detection limits were as low as 10 ppm and 2.2 μg/cm2, respectively.
Res-O-Mat T4 is an in vitro124I-T4 diagnostic test used for determining the T4 level of serum by competitive protein binding analysis.“Res-O-Mat T4 Kit”was used 177 cases. The test procedure was examined and the following results were obtained. 1) T4 levels (μg%) : 5.0-12.5 (average 9.10) for 8 normal males, 4.6-12.5 (average 8.1) for 26 normal females, 10.6-20↑ (average 16.3) for 15 cases male with hyperthyroidism, 13.2-20↑ (average 17.7) for 39 cases females with hyperthyroidism, 1.7-5.0 (average 3.5) for 7 cases with hypothyroidism, 4.5-16 (average 8.5) for 49 cases with non toxic goiter, 5.8 and 9.8 for 2 cases of subacute thyroiditis, 4.8-7.8 (average 6.0) for 3 cases of chronic thyroiditis, 9.0 and 10.8 for 2 cases of malignant goiter. The test demonstrated that the levels obtained with hyperthyroid, euthyroid and hypothyroid persons very slightly overlapped. T4 levels in normal subjects were differentiated from those with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. 2) Extraction ratio of T4 from sera were 82.5% in 10°C and 79.5% in 26°C. 3) T4 levels increased as the duration of incubation prolonged and it was considered that the incubation at room temperature for 60 min was the most stable and practical. 4) T4 levels was influenced by high and low temperature. Res-O-Mat T4 Kit doesn't need rinsing of resin and evaporation of alcohol by N2 gas and requires extremely simple procedure.
169Yb-DTPA, which was developed by Dr. H. N. Wagner, et al., was confirmed to be a very stable compound by the method of paperchromatography and thin layer chromatography, in which acetone-H2O (1: 1) was used as developer. Rf value of 169YbDTPAwith this developer was between 0.7-0.8, while169YbCl3remained at origin. Any radiochemical impurities were not detected by these methods after repeated autoclaving of the substance and storage for two months. To confirm its applicability to determination of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), 169Yb-DTPA and131I-iothalamate were injected simultaneously into a rabbit and concentrations of each compound in plasma and urine samples were analyzed by a pulse height analyzer from their gamma energies. GFR values obtained with both compounds showed good correlation and its correlation factor was 0.991. Furthermore GFR values calculated from the blood clearance curve method of the both compounds showed good agreement. It would appear that169Yb-DTPAis therefore a satisfactory substitute for131Iiothalamate clearances.