Catalase or palladium was immobilized to the polymer chain grafted onto a 6-nylon fiber to decompose hydroperoxide(H2O2) in ultrapure water. Catalase was adsorbed to a dimethylamino group of poly-dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate chain, followed by crosslinking with transglutaminase. Palladium complex ions were bound to the anion-exchange group and subsequent reduction with hydrazine. The density of immobilized catalase and impregnated palladium were 2.2×10－4 and 0.54mmol/g, respectively. The catalase-immobilized fiber quantitatively decomposed H2O2 in water up to a space velocity through the fiber‐packed bed of 400h－1. In contrast, almost 100% decomposition of H2O2 in water was attainable using the palladium-impregnated fiber above a space velocity of 3000h－1.
The aim of the current study was to extrapolate the pharmacokinetics of drug substances orally administered in humans from rat pharmacokinetic data using tolbutamide and acetaminophen as model compounds. Adjusted animal biomonitoring equivalents from rat studies based on reported plasma concentrations were scaled to human biomonitoring equivalents using known species allometric scaling factors. In this extrapolation, in vitro metabolic clearance data were obtained using liver preparations. Rates of tolbutamide elimination were roughly similar in rat and human liver microsome experiments, but acetaminophen elimination by rat liver microsomes and cytosolic preparations showed a tendency to be faster than those in humans. Using a simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic(PBPK) model, estimated human plasma concentrations of tolbutamide and acetaminophen were consistent with reported concentrations. Tolbutamide cleared in a roughly similar manner in humans and rats, but medical-dose levels of acetaminophen cleared(dependent on liver metabolism) more slowly from plasma in humans than it did in rats. The data presented here illustrate how pharmacokinetic data in combination with a simple PBPK model can be used to assist evaluations of the pharmacological/toxicological potential of new drug substances and for estimating human radiation exposures from radio‐labeled drugs when planning human studies.
To investigate the migrate situation of radioactive cesium in the soil due to the rainfall, the soil was collected at Kashiwa City, Chiba, Japan, before and after rainy season and after the typhoon season of 2013 fiscal year. This research was conducted between a period of 2 - 3years passed since the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. More than 95%of radioactive caesium still remained in the first upper 5cm soil layer. Also, penetration of radioactive caesium to the deeper layer of the soil was not observed during investigation period. In spite of same sampling area (within 150m2), there were 2 - 3 times of horizontal variations of radioactive caesium depending on sampling point. The soil collected in this study did not show dependent relation between the particle size distribution of the soil and the concentration of radioactive caesium. This phenomenon might be due to the cause of characteristic properties of Kanto Loam particles.
Lithologic and geologic knowledge is essential to understand the characteristics of the distribution of terrestrial gamma ray dose rates in the Japanese Islands. However, the target fields in lithology and geology are too wide. The present paper focuses particularly on very basic theories about crystallization-differentiation of magma and partial melting of source material, which play a vital role in understanding the distribution of terrestrial gamma ray dose rates. Soil is the main source emitting natural gamma rays which we observe outdoors. Then, it is important to know the relationship of radioactivities between rock and soil. This paper describes the transport of radioactivity from rock to soil theoretically, and evaluates reduction of dose rate due to leaching, eluviation and other effects. Finally, this paper deals with the problem of how the terrestrial gamma ray dose rate averaged over the Japanese Islands changed from the Mesozoic up to the present. Concretely, arranging the bedrock types in order of geologic age, a historical change of dose rate levels is outlined.