We retrospectively studied the spinal bone SPECT images of 84 consecutive patients (27 men, 57 women;mean age, 71.3 years;age range, 52 - 89 years) with acute non-traumatic collapse of a vertebra in the thoracolumbar spine. Of the 84 patients, 59(70.2%) had a history of malignancy. Twelve patients (14.3%) had a vertebral metastasis and 72(85.7%) had an osteoporosis in the vertebra. There were no clear differences between the vertebral body uptake patterns in the group with metastasis and the group with osteoporosis alone, although a horseshoe pattern tended to occur in the patients with a osteoporotic lesion (25% vs.42%). Increased pedicle uptake was seen in 20 patients (23.8%, 20/84), 9 of whom (75.0%, 9/12) had a vertebral metastasis and 11(15.3%, 11/72) did not (p<0.001). A pedicle sign or invasion on radiographs and/or CT images was seen in all 9 patients with metastatic disease patients (100%) but not in any of the11patients with osteoporosis. When pedicle uptake on SPECT images and the pedicle sign or invasion were used to diagnose bone metastasis in these84patients, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value were 75.0%(9/12), 84.7%(61/72), 45.0%(9/20), and 95.3%(61/64), respectively. Radiograph and CT remain to be important studies to diagnosis acute non-traumatic collapse of a vertebra, although a spinal SPECT study provides some additional information.
Consequently, the following matters have been mainly clarified. (1)REEs in soils mainly exists in the form of F(rd)fraction(i.e., silicate), although F(om) or F(fm) was relatively large proportion fraction(F(om):8-28%; F(fm):6-20%); while U in soils may be present as the fraction bound to carbonate (15%) in addition to as F(rd)(60-70%). (2)The total concentrations of U in soil in agricultural field is remarkably larger (about 2 times) than that in non-agricultural field, although the concentrations of REEs and Th are not greatly varied regardless of soil utilizations(i.e., paddy field, upland field or no plow). (3)The value of pH(H2O)-pH(KCl) in soil of the upland field is smallest. Moreover, EC(electric conductivity) in soil of the upland field is much higher than that of the paddy field or of the non-agricultural field. (4)REE pattern of the crops and fertilizers is generally similar to that of soils, although the order of the concentration of REEs is “soils” > “fertilizers” > “crops”.
We present moving manner of phosphate by real-time radioisotope imaging system we developed. Different accumulation pattern of phosphate between new leaves and old leaves was shown when the plants were grown under normal condition. When the plants were grown under phosphate deficient condition, there was no difference in phosphate accumulation between new leaves and old leaves. From the image, it was able to determine phosphate amount among the tissues.
Indoor radon concentrations have been measured in a limited number of dwellings in the state capital of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad city after the devastating earthquake of 2005. Radon detectors(CN-85 based box-type) were placed in the drawing rooms, bedrooms and kitchens of 35 houses, selected on the basis of their location and design as well as willingness and cooperation of householders from mid May to mid July 2007. The average radon concentrations were found to vary from 24 to 518 Bq m−3, 41 to 380 Bq m−3 and 32 to 467 Bq m−3 in the bedrooms, drawing rooms and kitchens, respectively. The weighted average radon concentration in older houses was found to vary from 51 to 334 Bq m−3 and for newly constructed houses a considerable decrease in measured values(ranging from 14 to 102 Bq m−3) have been found. As Pakistan does not currently have a national reference(or action level) for radon in homes, therefore the present data has been compared with the data reported for other countries. Some of the houses studied were found to have higher radon concentrations. These higher values of indoor radon levels may be due to the poor ventilation and influence of the earthquake in creating new fissures and therefore new pathways for radon to enter into the buildings.
The individual particle analyses of suspended particulate matter (SPM:particles less than 10μm in size) collected on tape filters during April 17-18, 2006, in Kawasaki, Japan, were carried out. The chemical elements present in aerosol particles were investigated by using a scanning electron microscope with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The fraction of chemical elements detected in the particles collected on April 18, 2006, except for S, was in good agreement with that in Asian dust particles from the Loess Plateau, China. S was not detected in Asian dust particles but was detected in the particles collected on April 18, 2006. Therefore, it was concluded that the particles collected on April 18, 2006, in Kawasaki were Asian dust particles transported from the Asian continent, and the absorption of SO2 or the coagulation of sulfate occurred during the transportation of Asian dust particles.
Measurement methods of a biomass carbon ratio in biomass products based on 14C-radiocarbon concentration have been reviewed. Determination of the biomass carbon ratio in biomass products is important to secure the reliance in the commercial market, because the "biomass products" could contain products from petroleum. The biomass carbon ratio can be determined from percent Modern Carbon(pMC) using ASTM D6866 methods. The pMC value is calculated from the comparison between the 14C in sample and 14C in reference material. The 14C concentration in chemical products can be measured by liquid scintillation counter(LSC) and accelerator mass spectrometry(AMS). LSC can be applicable to determine the biomass carbon ratio for liquid samples such as gasoline with bioethanol(E5 or E10). On the other hand, AMS can be used to determine the biomass carbon ratio for almost all kinds of organic and inorganic compounds such as starch, cellulose, ethanol, gasoline, or polymer composite with inorganic fillers. AMS can accept the gaseous and solid samples. The graphite derived from samples included in solid phase is measured by AMS. The biomass carbon of samples derived from wood were higher than 100% due to the effect of atomic bomb test in the atmosphere around 1950 which caused the artificial 14C injection. Exact calculation methods of the biomass carbon ratio from pMC will be required for the international standard(ISO standard).
11C-CFT is a new radiotracer with a cocaine-structure and binds specifically to dopamine transporter located on the presynaptic dopaminergic terminal, which gives us in vivo information on dopamine transporter binding. The selectivity of 11C-CFT to the target region and the specificity of 11C-CFT is considerably high. The synthesis of the tracer is fairly stable. With these qualities, the tracer enables to illustrate the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease(PD)or differentiate PD from brain disorders with parkinsonism. Moreover, it has been now in extensive use for other neurological and psychiatric diseases with dopaminergic abnormality. The clinical usefulness of 11C-CFT is described here.