RADIOISOTOPES
Online ISSN : 1884-4111
Print ISSN : 0033-8303
ISSN-L : 0033-8303
Volume 16 , Issue 10
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • Yoshinori FURUKAWA, Masaki KOYAMA, Makoto YUKI
    1967 Volume 16 Issue 10 Pages 499-503
    Published: October 15, 1967
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Detection of boron which was put into various mediums (water, carbon, glass and Al powder) was investigated quantitatively by the prompt gamma ray analysis techniques using NaI (Tl) scintillation detector and Ge solid state detector.
    Gamma rays from the reaction10B (n, α) 7mLi, 7mLi→7Li+477keV” were taken advantage of as prompt gamma rays using the collimated neutron beam from the TRIGA-II reactor as the neutron source.
    The limit of detection (sensitivity and accuracy) were examined and counting efficiencies, S/N ratios and resolutions of 3 kinds of detectors were compared with each other.
    The method of the background treatment at the reactor side was studied and discussed.
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  • Sumiko NAGATSUKA, Hamaji SUZUKI, Kiyoshi NAKAJIMA, Masatoshi KOBAYASHI
    1967 Volume 16 Issue 10 Pages 504-508
    Published: October 15, 1967
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The activation analysis by 14 MeV neutrons of bromine contained in the river water was examined to be applied to the activable tracer method to study the flow problem of the river water, because the use of the neutron generators will be more easy than the use of the nuclear reactor.
    The detection sensitivity of bromine is limited to be 1 ppm by the presence of 13N produced from oxygen.
    It corresponds to the dilution rate of about 106 if the concentration of tracer solution is 2.81 kg/10l NH4Br and the volume of the water sample is 100 ml.
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  • Teruko SAWAI, Philippe ALBERT
    1967 Volume 16 Issue 10 Pages 509-513
    Published: October 15, 1967
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The dosage of trace oxygen in aluminium is very interesting, because its chemical behavior is important for chemical and physical properties of the metal. The chemical methods and the vacuum fusion method for determining oxygen in aluminium seem to have many difficulties.
    The nondestructive activation analysis of oxygen in aluminium was carried out by means of 16O (α, pn) 18F, 16O (α, d) 18F 16O (α, 2n) 18Ne β+18F, 16O (3He, n) 18F, and 16O (3He, p) 18Ne β+18F reactions. As the calculation of content in charged particle activation is not so simple, we used the equivalent thickness method proposed by C. Engelmann, which is much simpler than the absolute method. The possible interfering nuclear reactions by aluminium and its impurities are examined. The analytical sensitivity in α- and 3He-activation is very high and the half-life of 18F is long enough to eliminate the surface contamination and the oxide film. The detection limits in our experimental conditions are compared with those by 16O (γ, n) 15O and 16O (n, p) 16N reactions. The activation analysis by 3He is found to be the best method for the analysis of oxygen in aluminium.
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  • Kiyoshi KUDO, Katsumi YAMAMOTO, Shigeo KURIYAMA
    1967 Volume 16 Issue 10 Pages 514-518
    Published: October 15, 1967
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A method of the radioactivation analysis based on the quantitative isotope dilution principle was developed for the determination of trace of cadmium.
    The experiments about the reaction between cadmium and dithizone were carried out at various conditions and it was shown that the reaction ratio was constant in the solution of 1 N sodium hydroxide containing more than 200 μg of cadmium carrier. It was also shown that the radioactivity of the extract was proportional to the amount of cadmium isotope.
    The method has been applied to the determination of cadmium in aluminium and in zinc. After neutron irradiation, a large amount of cadmium carrier was added and separated by the two dithizone extraction steps. The second extraction was carried out with dithizone in a smaller amount than that required to react with cadmium present and the radioactivity of the extract (a) was measured. A cadmium standard (Ms) was treated in exactly the same way as a test sample and the radioactivity (as) was measured. The unknown amount of cadmium (Mx) was calculated from Mx=Ms a/as. 0.3 ppm of cadmium was analyzed in zinc sample.
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  • Mitsuhisa TAMURA, Naoomi YAMAKI
    1967 Volume 16 Issue 10 Pages 519-525
    Published: October 15, 1967
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Analytical methods by 14 MeV neutron of oxygen and sulfur in petroleum products and permeability of polyethylene sample container to various hydrocarbons are discussed.
    It is proposed that for the analysis of oxygen in petroleum products only a change in density may have an effect on self shielding against neutron and against the radiation from 16N. On the basis of above proposal, it is estimated that the difference between the gradients of the calibration curves applied to gasoline and heavy fuel oil or lubricating oil is about 8%. The relative standard deviation on a result is about 10% at 100% ppm of oxygen.
    The rapid determination of sulfur is based on scintillation counting of the radiation from the 12.4 second 34P produced by the 34S (n, p) 34P reaction, requiring corrections for oxygen as a main interfering element. The relative error is about 4% at the range of 0.5-3% sulfur but the values obtained are 5-10% higher than those by bomb method because of impurities other than oxygen. Experimental time for an analysis is about 5 minutes.
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  • Yuzuru KUSAKA, Ping-Yao CHEN, Haruo TSUJI, Sakingo IMAI
    1967 Volume 16 Issue 10 Pages 526-530
    Published: October 15, 1967
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Neutron activation analysis have been applied to elucidate the distribution of several trace elements in rice plant. The seed, stem, leaf, chaff and grain samples (1g each) were irradiated for 5 or 30 min with the Tsing Hua University Reactor or the Kyoto University Reactor (swimming-pool type, 1 MW, 2-4×1012 thermal neutrons/cm2/sec) through the pneumatic tube systems. After the irradiation, manganese, sodium, and potassium could determine non-destructively without any chemical treatment. Chlorine, bromine, copper, and zinc were determined after some radiochemical separation treatments. The induced radioactivities in the non-separated and the separated specimens were measured by the gamma-ray spectrometries, using a TMC 100-channel analyzer with a 2 in.×2 in. NaI scintillator or a RCL 512-channel analyzer with a 3 in.×3 in. NaI scintillator. The outline of the analysis is shown in Table 1. In the potassium determination, a spectrum-stripping method to eliminate the sodium interference was applied. In the destructive method, the irradiated samples were decomposed with mixtures of conc. H2SO4 and conc. HNO3. Chlorine and bromine were determined in the acidic distillates through the silver salt precipitations, and copper and zinc in the residual solutions through the chloride anion exchange and the oxine salt precipitations. All the chemical yields were more than 95%. The typical gemma-ray spectra are shown in Fig. 1-7 and the analytical results in Table 2. The experimental errors were 3-5% in the manganese, 5-10% in the sodium, the potassium, the chlorine, the bromine and the copper, and 10-20% in the zinc analyses. From the experimental results shown in Table 2, it was clarified that chlorine tends to be concentrated in seed, manganese, sodium, and bromine in leaf, potassium in stem. These distribution effects may reflect the metabolic specificity in organ of rice plant.
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  • Masao SHIBUYA, Kouichi YUITA, Kiyoshi SUZUKI
    1967 Volume 16 Issue 10 Pages 531-536
    Published: October 15, 1967
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To establish a routine method of activation analysis for bromine in the plant materials, non-destructive method was studied and samples of plant materials of widely different bromine content have been analyzed by non-destructive neutron activation analysis.
    According to the differences of neutron cross section, the decay constant and the content of the elements in question, the time required for neutron irradiation and cooling time were selected.
    In this method, 50-300 mg of plant materials were enclosed in small polyethylene bag for irradiation.
    The samples and Br-standard were then irradiated in a capsule in the JRR-1 reactor at a flux of 3 ×1011n/cm2/sec for a period of 5 hours (or JRR-2 reactor at a flux of 8×1013 n/cm2/sec for a period of 5 minutes) .
    After the cooling time of 50 hours, the activity of the bromine-82 were measured, using photopeak of gamma rays of 0.77 MeV by a multi-channel pulse-hight analyser.
    Precision ranges from ±3% (standard deviation) for samples with high bromine contents to ±20% for samples with low contents. This method can be applicable to the sample containing bromine as low as 0.15 ppm.
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  • Yuichiro KIMURA, Hiroshige MORISHIMA, Taeko KOGA, Yoshihide HONDA, Hir ...
    1967 Volume 16 Issue 10 Pages 537-542
    Published: October 15, 1967
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The modified Gutzeit method for separation of arsenic was combined with neutron activation analysis of arsenic in biological materials.
    The modified Gutzeit method often used for determination of arsenic in biological materials in Japan is relatively simple, but it is difficult to determine microamounts of arsenic less than 3μg and the errors according to this method are sometimes quite large. Therefore, the authors attempted the quantitative determination of arsenic by activation method.
    The samples were first irradiated with thermal neutron at a flux of about 4×1012n/cm2/sec for 1 hour and then digested with nitric-sulfuric acid.
    Activated arsenic as arsine evolved by modified Gutzeit method was collected on a mercuric bromide paper strip and then the radioactivity was measured.
    The minimum detectable amount of activated arsenic on the mercuric bromide paper strip in this method was of the order of 10-3μg and the mean recovery was about 80% with the standard deviation of less than 10%.
    The authors attempted the quantitative determination of arsenic in human head hair with this method.
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  • Tomomitu HIGASHI, Taro HISADA, Sinichi IKEMOTO, Kenji TOMURA, Teruaki ...
    1967 Volume 16 Issue 10 Pages 543-548
    Published: October 15, 1967
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The biological meaning of the inorganic trace elements has been ignored as compared with the organic ones.
    For the first trial activation analysis was carried out to determine whether the cancerous tissue contains characteristic inorganic trace element. The first experiment was not successful, since the abundantly produced 24Na in the tissue interfered the satisfactory detection of other inorganic elements.
    For the second trial the anticoincidence NaI (Tl) spectrometer was undertaken to measure quantitative K/Na ratio as to the normal and the cancerous tissues. But, no significant result was obtained.
    For the third trial a microautoradiograph technique was applied to the cancerous tissues obtained from various sources such as the stomach, breast, thyroid gland and intestine.
    The third experiment was successful in demonstrating the localization of the granules which indicate the presence of 32P in the tissue. The granules were identifiable particularly in the regions of the nuclear membrane, nucleus, chromatins and plasma membrane.
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  • Kiyoshi KUDO, Hidemaro ARAKI, Masatomo FUJIMOTO, Yasuo SATO
    1967 Volume 16 Issue 10 Pages 549-550
    Published: October 15, 1967
    Released: July 21, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    1967 Volume 16 Issue 10 Pages 551-553
    Published: October 15, 1967
    Released: July 21, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Isamu YANAGISAWA, Haruhisa YOSHIKAWA
    1967 Volume 16 Issue 10 Pages 554-555
    Published: October 15, 1967
    Released: July 21, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    1967 Volume 16 Issue 10 Pages 556-566
    Published: October 15, 1967
    Released: July 21, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    1967 Volume 16 Issue 10 Pages 567-576
    Published: October 15, 1967
    Released: July 21, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • 1967 Volume 16 Issue 10 Pages A803-A368
    Published: October 15, 1967
    Released: July 21, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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