Background: The fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a useful marker of asthma control. The FENO measurement with two hand-helded analyzers (NObreath® and NIOX Vero®) may be more affordable, no studies have examined the differences in FENO values measured with those methods in adult.
Methods: The study population comprised 44 subjects at our outpatient clinic. FeNO values (FENOb and FENOv) were measured by two methods (NObreath® and NIOX Vero®).
Results: FENOb values were significantly correlated with FENOv (r = 0.911, p < 0.001). However, FENOv values were high compared with FENOb (FENOv = 1.40 × FENOb).
Conclusion: Differences exist in the values of FENO measured by two hand-helded analyzers: conversion equations are needed to compare the FENO values between these methods.
Background: Since wheat flour, a cause of food allergy, tends to disperse rapidly in air, it can unintentionally mix other foods during the sieving process. Our aim was to analyze the dispersal of wheat flour dust in air in order to prevent unintentional mixing.
Methods: We measured particle size distribution of wheat flour, photographed the scattered flour for 60 seconds every 10 seconds after sieving through three types of flour sifter, constructed a velocity vector diagram of flour dust dispersal by each type of sifter, and measured the distance of wheat allergen dispersal over 20 minutes using a petri dish and immunochromatographic test.
Results: The particles were mainly 14.2μm and 60.4μm in diameter and settled at terminal velocities of about 8mm/s and 150mm/s, respectively. Wheat flour particles of more than 60μm (released in air by sifting) dropped mainly in the perpendicular direction, while particles of less than 30μm remained suspended and traveled 5m after sifting by all flour sifters.
Conclusion: Our results suggested that wheat flour dust dispersed by sifting (regardless of sifter) could unintentionally mix other foods. To prevent contamination, it is necessary to control the flow of air or sift flour in a separate room.
Background: Food processing causes decomposition, denaturation or polymerization of protein, which may alter an allergic reaction. This study aimed to investigate the insolubility and alteration of wheat allergens in processed foods and the reactivity to patient sera.
Methods: We extracted proteins from wheat flour, udon and bread using different extracts and conducted SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. IgE-immunoblotting was also conducted using sera from children with wheat allergy.
Results: Soluble protein was extracted from wheat flour, and gluten fractions were also extracted by adding SDS. However, no proteins were able to be extracted from udon or bread witout severing the disulfide bonds under reducing condition. Only trace amounts of protein were detected in the water after boiling udon noodles. The reactivity of IgE antibody to the extracted protein did not differ among the different processed food types.
Conclusions: Wheat allergens became strongly insolubilized after gluten formation and heating. However, the reactivity of IgE antibody to each allergen was not affected by food processing. Further studies are needed for the effects on clinical symptoms.
A 42 year old woman visited on our hospital because of cough, sputum, pruritus and erythema. She showed peripheral blood eosinophilia, high level of FENO, bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Diagnosis of bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis was made, but she rejected therapy except for Saibokutou, a Kampo herbal medicine. After 1 year, her symptoms and her laboratory data were improved.