In recent years, wild boar farms have appeared in various areas in order to produce their flesh. Although wild boars have been treated mainly as vermin or game, such new domestication is also considered to be one of the biogeographical themes. The author made a preliminary study of these phenomena in Japan through questionnairing. New domestication of wild boars is divided into two forms such as raising of wild boars and raising of ino-buta (hybrid between wild boar and pig). The former has developed since around 1975 when hunting number of wild boars began to decrease in spite of increasing demand for their flesh. The latter has been introduced to improve fleshy substance in pig since around 1970 and to solve problematic factors on number of litter and fattening term in raising of wild boars. With regard to operation, there are three types such as individual operation, group operation and entrusting. Less than 50 head of wild boars are raised in individual operation, but there are some large scale raising in group operation and entrusting. Especially, entrusting is thought to be one of the effective systems that make security of labor and land for enlarging a scale. Generally, operators give assorted feed for pig keeping to wild boars from the view point of facility and reduction of labor. In raising of wild boars, potatoes, cereals, edible herbs, grass, nut, and bone and scraps of fish and chicken are often supplied in order to improve the quality of flesh. Excrementitious matter is utilized as manure almost all. The distribution of wild boars is as follows. There are two courses in the trade of wild boars. One is the trade of little wild boars to those who wish to keep them or want to keep more wild boars. The other is the trade of fattened one as flesh or mating. Main destinations of flesh are restaurants, hotels, and wholesale stores of flesh of wild boars. In the trade of ino-beta, fattened one is shipped for flesh, and little one is scarcely dealt with. Although new domestication of wild boars for flesh is an interesting attempt, there are some problems to be solved such as insufficiency of labor and land for enlarging a scale, techniques of raising, unbalanced connection between producer and consumer, and fluctuations of market prices.
There has been a discrepancy between the European view of the term “alpine” zone and the Japanese one. European researchers consider orthodoxically the alpine zone as a tree-less area covered with ericaceous dwarf shrubby cushion plants between the timberline at its lower limit and the climatic snow line at its upper limit. Japanese researchers have traditionally reckoned the alpine zone as an area covered with the extension of the Pinus pumila thickets admixing many alpine-boreal elements above the forest limit. Japanese phytosociologists have recently payed attention to such a traditional Japanese view of the alpine zone. The author is much interested in this problematic usage of the term “alpine”; in the present study, an approach is made to this subject through his own research on the ecology of the P. pumila thickets carried out in Mts. Taisetsu, Central Hokkaido. Compared with the European alpine communities with those of Japan, it is clear that the latter is fundamentally different from the former because of the well-establishment of the P. pumila thickets rich in boreal forest elements and the high productivity of P. pumila itself which is nearly equal to that of the Abies-Picea forest. Thermally, WI of the area occupied by the P. pumila thickets is no less than WI=15 that has been considered to coincide with the northern forest limits. Further, P. purnila thickets differ fundamentally from the conifer krummholz which is highly popular to the European high mountains though the thickets look like the krummholz forms. The latter forms the component of the forest while the former never forms the forest. The author concluded that the traditional definition of the “alpine” zone in Japan should be abandoned, and that the P. pumila thicket belongs essentially to the upper part of the forest zone in the vertical distribution. Another conclusion is that the so-called alpine zone occupied with the extension of the P. pumila thickets in Japanese high mountains as well as at Mts. Taisetsu does not strictly correspond to the krummholz zone at the upper part of the forest zone in European high mountains The Japanese alpine zone is a unique and independent vegetational zone, and it is not the fragment of the forest zone such as the conifer krummholz zone in Europe.