Desertification has been a universal issue since it was discussed at UNCOD (United Nations Conference on Desertification) in 1977. The word desertification is defined here as land and vegetation degradation at various parts of the world including humid region as well as arid and semi-arid regions. This symposium aimed at examining the present situation of those areas suffered from desertification and studying out preventive measures of this phenomenon. The following subjects were set up: 1. Climatic variation and desertification. 2. Water use and salinization. 3. Agro-pastoral land use and degradation of land. 4. Natural environment and change in land use. 5. Preventives of desertification and suggestions for environmental management. Submitted studies are as follows: [Climatic variation and desertification] Tanaka, M. (Meteorological Research Institute): Recent climatic change and increased aridity in the tropical regions. Iwasaki, K. (Hokkaido University): Climatic fluctuations and desertification in Australia. [Water use and salinization] Matsumoto, S. (The University of Tokyo): Water utilization and salts accumulation with the agricultural development in arid lands. Takamura, H. (Rissho University): Desertification in Zambia and some problems of ground-water rising in Qatar. [Agro-pastoral land use and degradation of land] Takeuchi, K. (The University of Tokyo): Vegetation-ecological discussion on the ‘desertification’ phenomena in the southern part of semi-arid Australia. Tase, N. (University of Tsukuba): Background of desertification and environmental management in the U. S. A. Tamura, T. (Tohoku University): Development of pseudo-semiarid landscape in humid tropical Africa. Yasuda, Y. (University of Hiroshima): A study of the mechanism about the continual devastation of forest in Ege Sea region. [Natural environment and change in land use] Fujii, H. (Hyogo University of Teacher Education): On adaptation to the change of natural environment in case of modern agro-pastoral system and traditional agro-pastoral system in West Africa. Fujiwara, K. (University of Hiroshima) and Sadakata, N. (Hokkaido University of Education): Rural development schemes and changes in land use in the semi-arid region of South India. Yamamoto, S. (University of Tsukuba): Some observations on the traditional agricultural systems adapted to the physical environment of the semi-arid region in Northeast Brazil. Goto, A. (Kanagawa University): Traditional agriculture-system in arid and semi-arid area.-The case study of Iran-. [Preventives of desertification and suggestions] Kohno, M. (Kansai University): Desertification and its recovering policy in China. Kobori, I. (Mie University): Desertification and desertification control. Tomita, K. (Japan International Cooperation Agency): Preventives of desertification. [Discussion Opener] Ichikawa, M. (Akikusa Gakuen Junior College): On the present situations and problems of the desertification in the world. Presented subjects were discussed almost to the full. There are few studies, however, based on original data and regional comparison remains to be discussed.
The purpose of this symposium is to summarize all available researches on Manbo Qanat by Japanese scholars (including bibliographical aids of international scholars inter-estell in this field of research) and discuss our future research projects on Manbo & Qanata. Seven communications were presented: 1) Y. KIMOTO (Mie University) “Manbo Irrigation System: my observation as an agricultural enginneer” 2) Y. SAKANO (Yokkaichi Technical High School) “Origin, disporsals & recent modifications of Manbo System in Mie Prefecture” 3) K. ARATANI (Yoshiki High School) “A Case Study on Manbo system in Gifu Prefecture” 4) S. OKAZAKI (Osaka University of Foreign Studies) “Distribution & Classification of Horizontal Wells in Western Japan” 5) K. TANAKA (Mie College) “Distribution of local dialects concerning Manbo and Horizontal Wells in Eastern Japan” 6) T. ODA (Kyoto University, Prof. Emer.) “Differnces & Similarities on Construction techniques of Manbo & Qanat” 7) I. KOBORI (Mie University), M. KATAKURA (National Museum of Ethnology) & K. YAGI (Tokyo Institute of Technology) “Case Studies on Qanat Systems in Syria, Algeria, China and South America” After presentations, various interesting comments such as “Hydrological Aspects of Manbo system (K. MORI, Mie University), “Re-varluation of Manbo-Qanat System as an alternative technology” (I. KAYANE, University of Tsukuba) were introduced. As one conclusion of this symposium, the Organizers have noticed that several further intensive & extensive researches have to be done in and outside Japan. No. I) The definition of Manbo is very necessary. So called Manbo in Mie Prefecture and its adjacent areas has an approximately similiar physical form in comparison with Qanat. However, Manbo as a mediaeval Japanese means simply tunnel and there are many Manbos as underground tunnels or aqueducts without vertical shafts. Under those confusing conditions, we definitely need an exact definition of Manbo as a terminology. No. II) The orgin & dispersals of Manbo. We have little information about the technical influence of mining engineering to Manbo system. But no concrete historical, geographical cutural studies are available up to present. No. III) The compilation and printing of all available published or non-published informations is urgently needed for researchers & planners. No. IV) Although Manbo system might or might not have direct technical relations with Qanat, the same project on Qanat equivalent to No. III Project is to be done by inter national academic circles. The Japanese groups too, are ready to share their experiences with them.
Chukyo or Chubu, the area of Nagoya City and its vicinity is often referred to as the third metropolitan area of Japan after Tokyo and Osaka. However, it is often disputed as to whether Nagoya should be referred to as one of these metropolises or on the same level as local centers such as Sappolo, Sendai, Hiroshima and Fukuoka in the sense of its city-size and its accumulation of central management functions. The central government of Japan is now preparing its fourth national comprehensive plan. In these preparations, Nagoya's status is one of the major discussion problems awaiting resolution in the prospect of Japan's future urban system. Through the symposium, two points became quite clear as the characteristics of Nagoya: 1) It is the largest industrial center in Japan. 2) It has less accumulation of nationwide management functions. Although the importance of the location of higher level urban functions has been decreasing, there has been a relative increase in international and national production functions. Related to this point, Nagoya would not be included in the three major metropolises but would be referred to as the largest regional center (Hayashi, N.). Regarding the enterprise system, wide differentials have been observed between Nagoya and Osaka (Sawada, K.). Even in industrial functions, Nagoya's advanced higher technology and information level is nevertheless behind compared to Tokyo's Capital Region (Miyakawa, Y. and Ito, Y.). Nagoya, located in between Tokyo and Osaka, could be still an interesting sabject of future study in the field of urban, economic and cultural geography and planning. Papers submitted to the Symposium: Hayashi, N. (Nagoya Univ.): Regional Economic Characteristics of Nagoya as a Middle City. Miyakawa, Y. (Aichi Kyoiku Univ.): The Change of Industrial Structure and the Transformation of Chukyo Industrial Region. Ito, Y. (Keio Univ.): Recent Trends and Urban Policies of Industrial Cities in Chukyo Region. Sawada, K. (Nihon Univ.): Chukyo Region regarding the Enterprise System of Japan.