The central city still has important functions in the Keihanshin Metropolitan area, although it is often argued that metropolitan suburbs are no longer merely residential places but have become more self-supporting with the suburbanization of retail and other activities. For example, although restaurants have been substantially suburbanized, the location quotients of restaurants in the suburbs are still not so high as those of retail businesses. This article is a case study of Fujiidera City in the suburbs of Osaka, to examine how suburban inhab-itants choose restaurants in the CBD and the suburbs. The results are as follows: 1) Among the inhabitants in Fujiidera City, there are mainly two types in terms of ways of choos-ing where to eat in restaurants. One is the type who use restaurants only in the suburbs for various purposes (type A). The other is those who change the place according to their purpose (type B). 2) The inhabitants of type B use restaurants near the large stations in the suburbs when they go shopping. When they want to eat at restaurants with their families, they use roadside restaurants in the suburbs with ease of parking. When they want to use restaurants for leisure with their friends, they use restaurants in the CBD, especially near the railway terminals. 3) Although most of the inhabitants do not commute to the CBD, they appreciate restaurants in the CBD for their food and atmosphere of higher quality. Judging from these comments, we can say that restaurants in the suburbs do not yet have as much variety as restaurants in the CBD.
Recently, several geomorphologists have applied a relative dating method using weathering rind thickness to date glaciations or periglaciations during the late Quaternary in Japan. However, some problems remain to be solved. The most important one is to evaluate the field environments factors (e. g., total amount of snow melt water supply) affecting rind growth over time. In this study the following investigations were carried out at a partly vegetated snow accumulation hollow in Mount Gassan, northern Japan. First, weathering rind thickness on surface cobbles were measured. The weathering rind criterion is the mean maximum rind thickness for each plot. Second, ages of slope stabilizations in the study site were determined by means of radiocarbon dating and tephrochronology. Third, retreat of the snow patch margin was repeatedly observed. Based on the above results, the relations between spatial varia-tions of weathering rind thickness and ages of slope stabilizations are discussed. The fundamental prob-lems of this method are also pointed out. The principal results are summarized as follows: (1) Spatial variations of rind thickness do not always correspond to the duration time of slope stabih ity. Slopes with the maximum value of 5.5 mm in rind thickness are considered to have been stable since the mid or late Holocene. However, the oldest stage of slope stabilization in the study site could be the Late Glacial or early Holocene. (2) The mean value of rind thickness varies by a factor of about two within the confines of slopes that are considered to have been stable or to be unstable. For example, the value changes from 1.3 to 3.3 mm within the snow patch bare ground. This slope is regarded as unstable, because active niveo-fluvial transportation and physical weathering occur there. (3) Within the snow patch bare ground the average value of rind thickness never shows 0 mm. This fact indicates that weathering rind thickness as a rule of time is not always set at zero when a slope is stabilized. The assumption that weathering rind thickness was 0 mm at the slope stabiliza-tion should be re-examined. Researchers who attempt to use this method in snowy environments like those in the Japanese high mountains should carefully collect abundant data.