Changes in architecture reflect interactions among social groups, each of which seems to have a certain “meaning matrix” that is the implicit knowledge required for understanding the meaning of things. Disagreements over meaning matrices occasionally bring about laws regulating the style of architecture. In this paper, the author examines the relation between law and the architecture of Japanese “lovers' inns, ” which are inns with eye-catching facades and screened entrances, catering to couples for short-time or overnight stays, from the viewpoint of the interaction of two social groups; the owners of these inns and local residents. 1) The historical changes in lovers' inns architecture are as follows: 1950s: Inns displaying hot spring symbols were located in city centers. 1960s-early 1970s: Western-style architecture appeared, and “gorgeous” motels imitating Western castles or cruisers proliferated along suburban highways. Late 1970s-1980s: The appearance of love-hotels (lovers' inns located on urban streets) has become “subdued.” 2) The owners and planners of lovers' inns have had a tendency to use striking decor in order to attract people's attention. 3) Local residents have a desire to conceal things concerning sex, which results in demands for a “subdued” appearance and the exclusion of lovers' inns from residential areas. 4) Reflecting the viewpoint of local residents, regulations covering the appearance, the inside structure, and the location of lovers' inns have been established. 5) The relation between law, architecture, and meaning matrices is shown in Fig. 4. Owners and planners build the inns. Local residents perceive the inns' appearance through their own meaning matrix. When the architecture is not acceptable to the local residents, laws are established, which are implicitly recognized by them. The owners understand the laws and change the style of architecture.
The cities of Hachioji and Machida, located in the western suburb of Tokyo, have developed with the expansion of the Tokyo metropolitan area. But the two cities have different histories. Hachioji city was a stage town (shuhubamachi) in the late feudal period, and developed into a central city in the Tama area after the Meiji Restoration. Machida does not have such a long history; it deve-loped as an urban area only after the opening of the national railways' Yokohama Line and the private Odakyu Line in the late. The author analyzed the processes of change in the central business district (CBD) structure of the two cities, using such indicators as the change in functional accu-mulation, location of multi-storied buildings, and change in floor use for each function, with the comparison being made between 1981 and 1987. The following are a few results in the differences of changes of CBDs in the two cities. 1) The differences in the function of CBDs in the two cities can be explained by differences in the process of accumulation. Hachioji has experienced a shift of the core of its CBD from Koshu-kaido highway to Hachioji station, and its CBD has been differentiated functionally. But in Machida, because the CBD developedd near the station of the Odakyu Line, various functions already existed there. The survey also shows a reductive tendency in the area which serves some functions of the CBD (Figs. 1-3, Tables 1-4). 2) The differences in shape between the two CBDs can also be observed from a survey of the locations of multi-storied buildings. In Hachioji, the density of those buildings which were located on the three main streets stretching away from the station in 1981 has increased since 1981, and there is now a cluster of them in front of the station. In Machida, the number of multi-storied buildings which could be seen in the core of the CBD has increased in area surrounding it. The difference in the process of forming the CBD in the two cities reflects the differences in building use in the two CBDs (Fig. 4, Table 5). 3) The cluster analysis for changes in floor use reveals the degree of the functional areal differ-entiation in each of the CBDs. In Hachioji, three kinds of clusters can be recognized separately: offices, personal services, and parking and vacant lots. In Machida, the cluster which changed to office use is dominant. The comparison between present and previous functions of each floor in the buildings of the two CBDs shows the difference in the CBD development processes (Fig. 5). Those differences can be explained by both the historical background and the CBD development processes. Hachioji experienced functional areal differentiation in the shift of its CBD core. But Machida developed into a satellite city after the railroads opened in the Meiji period. As a result, the functions in the CBD have accumulated differently.