Lake Ogawara is located in the eastern part of Aomori Prefecture, north Japan. The authors obtained the Holocene lake sediments by all-cored borings at two sites of lake-side lowland, and presumed the Holocene water level changes of Lake Ogawara through diatom analysis of the sediments. At the Loc. A near the Chushi (I) shell-mound site formed early to middle Jomon period, the succession of three diatom zones can be subdivided. Zone I (-1.8_??_+1.0m); marine species constitute about 90%, and Paralia sulucata, Diploneis smithii are dominant. Zone II (+1.0_??_+2.6m); the rate of marine species decreases from lower to upper horizon, and Cyclotella striata v. subsalina, which lives in brackish lagoon, is dominant. Zone III (+2.6_??_+5.0m); fresh water species accounts for more than 90%, and marine species cannot be observed. Navicura radiosa, Fragilaria construens and Eunotia veneris are dominant. At the Loc. B near Futatsumori shell-mound site formed early to middle Jomon period, the succession of three diatom zone can be subdivided. Zone I (-0.5_??_-0.0m); Cyclotella striata v. subsalina accounts for about 50%. Zone II (0.0_??_+3.0m); fresh water species constitute more than 90%. Navicula radiosa, Melosira ambigua, which live in fresh-water pond, are dominant. Zone III (+3.0_??_+5.0m); fresh water species constitute more than 90%. But Eunotia veneris, which lives in a boggy environment, is dominant. On the basis of the result of diatom analysis, 14C date and tephrochronology, water level of Lake Ogawara was 2m higher than that of present about 4, 500_??_5, 000 y. 8. P., and it had lowered to the same level as present till 3, 500 y. B. P.. Since then water level has been stable.
Shikki (Japanese lacquer ware, Japan) industrial areas of Japan underwent the changes by the wide use of ersatz lacquer (Cashew paint, etc.) and the adoption of machine in the period of rapid economic growth. This paper compares Shizuoka-Shikki industry in Shizuoka City with Kiso-Shikki industry in Narakawa Village, Nagano Prefecture, by interview surveys in 1978_??_1979 and documents. The result is that Shizuoka has shown a marked decrease in the number of kyushitsu (lacquer coating) factories, and the shikki industry has been replaced by nurirnono (ersatz lacquer ware) industry, whereas Kiso has increased the number of kyushitsu factories (Tables 1 and 3, Figs. 3, 4-b and 5-b). Such differences between the two areas have been brought about by the following reasons. 1. The difference in shikki producing technique is the most important factor that has caused the difference between the two areas. Shizuoka adopted the simplest nikawa-shitaji method since the Meiji Era (1868_??_1912) . Kiso, on the contrary, took the most complex urushi-shitaji method. The technical simplification of Shizuoka has led to mass production and resulted in the use of daiyourushi (ersatz lacquer), while the technical complexity of Kiso has led to take over kyushitsu. 2. The more merchant-minded Shizuoka dealers (Fig. 1-a), decided to use ersatz urushi (Japan) when the Chinese urushi imports stopped in 1959 1960. The more handicraftsman-minded Kiso dealers (Fig. 1-b), however, took the initiative to import Chinese urushi. 3. During the Meiji Era, manufacturing of furnitures wood footwears, accessories of dolls for girls' festival and containers began applying the technique of shikki in Shizuoka. After the World War II, home temple and the others were added to their products. 4. Jewel case for export, a major product in Shizuoka, did not sell well. But in Kiso, zataku (sitting table in Japanese fashion for plural use) taking the place of zen (small dining table in Japanese fashion for singular use), enjoyed a good reputation as a major product. 5. Handicraftsmen in Kiso began to have wide factory by their own, because manufacturing of zataku needs wide place. Many new factory buildings are furnished with aluminium sash and block materials (Figs. 4-b and 5-b). As the result, Kiso has expanded shikki industry, while Shizuoka has ceased traditional production. However, Shizuoka has grown to the prominent production area of the nunmono and the aforementioned industries in Japan (Table 2).