Japanese agriculture in the Edo period substantially depended on the fish fertilizer. In every agrarian village in those days land was continuously cultivated without fallow and fertilizer application was necessary to maintain the soil fertility. As the grass fertilizer from woodlands was limited, a demand for fish fertilizer expanded. Sardine fisheries developed along the south and east coast of the Kanto District, where existed many wholesalers specialized in sardine fertilizers. Particularly such wholesalers in Edo and Uraga played a very important role in the distribution of the fish fertilizer. Uraga, located on a small bay of Miura Peninsula just across from Boso Peninsula, was an important port of transit, where wholesalers played a crucial role transferring dried sardines for Kamigata (Kyoto and its vicinities). Their activities, however, were subject to the influence of the larger wholesalers in Edo. The anther analized the transformation of trade areas of fish fertilizer wholesalers in Uraga during the latter half of the Edo period. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. In the early Edo period Uraga wholesaler's collection area of sardines spread widely along the Pacific coast from the northernmost province of Mutsu to Izu Peninsula. In the mid-Edo period, however, it became restricted to some villages in Boso Peninsula. In the late Edo period a small fishing village of Katsuura in Kazusa Province of the Peninsula was the only place to supply Uraga wholesalers with sardines. 2. Competition with wholesalers in Edo was the main cause of the decline. When the new fishing gears (beach seine) appeared in Boso Peninsula, wholesalers in Edo were easily able to supply fishermen with fund reguired to materialize such advancement, thus expanding their control over the fishery. Uraga wholesalers being unable to compete with the Edo wholesalers in extending fund, their sphere of collection became restricted to minor fishing areas where primitive fishing gears such as pair boat lift net were still used. Furthermore, some feudal lords began to buy fish fertilizers for their peasants directly from producers. 3. While Uraga wholesaler's major market was Kamigata in the early Edo period, it shifted in the later period to the nearer districts such as Sagami and Owari Provinces (the present-day Kanagawa and Aichi Prefectures, respectvely). The central part of Sagami, where the fish fertilizer began to be used in the 1730s, became the market of Uraga because of its accessibility. As for the Province of Owari, the feudal lord preferred to use his ships carrying fish fertilizers on their return trips.
This paper attempts to build a multi-regional econometric model for the purpose of establishing a frame work of urban land use and also to examine its effectiveness as a method for the analysis of urban land use. In recent years the governmental organization, where it takes a planning decision as in the case of city planning decisions, has come to be strongly urged to formulate a plan through scientific methods on a clear and definite foundation. As far as land use planning is concerned, it is required that a mathematical model which depicts a number of changing regional phenomena relating to land use be built and that the prospective land use pattern of the region concerned be forecasted by the model quantitatively as well as logically. Although some mathematical models on land use have been developed, none of them is deemed acceptable as a standard technique for practical use. The type of the model discussed in this paper is a regional econometric one, because an empirical model is needed for practical use. The Ward Area of Tokyo is divided into seven zones and the model has been built to be applied to each one of them. The variables that have been selected to index land uses are floor area ratio, ratio of non-wooden buildings, floor area of office buildings, and ratio of roads. With these variables taken from the data over the period of 1965 to 1978, the land use model has been built to simulate the processes of land use change in the Ward Area of Tokyo. As a result, it has become clear that the floor area ratio can be explained by the acoumulation of buildings kind the development of the transportation facilities. The fitness of the model is so good that the future land use of the area may be predicted with necessary accuracy. In addition, it has been shown that despite the limitations in its range and objects the model could be used as an effective tool to analyse urban land use if variables were examined carefully.