This study aimed to examine how the physical education of women contributes to the formation and realization of female image by survey of female image and a view of the physical education for women. This paper also intended to examine the affinity and the difference between the ideal image and the nature of physical education and to obtain some materials for the purpose of improvement of the physical education of women. 1998 students of both sexes covering middle school, high school and college have been Selected. This survey was carried out in June-July 1966 and 1967. The results are as follows: 1) There are dome difference in female image of both sexes. The female wants to cultivate her abilities and to pursue her own life, whereas the male expects the opposite sex to be graceful, homely good wife and virtuous mother and does not want very much the opposite sex to cultivate her abilities. 2) About the efficacy of sport to cultivate the ideal female image, it is understood that this depends on the characteristics of each sport. Volley ball and athletics are supposed to have an effect to promote strong will and social consciousness. Dance is considered to have an effect on emotion and graceful action. It is also supposed that gymnastics are effective to cultivate flexibility and strong will. Swimming is considered to have an effect on emotion and strong will.
We attempted to construct a group membership test in order to measure the `group membership', which is an operational concept used in analyzing the relationships between the members' attitude and behavior and the function of the athletic group. Subjects are 419 in number, whom we selected from many athletic groups of colleges and high schools in the Kinki District. Ave asked them to answer the questionnaires twice, in July and October, 1965. Using the data thus obtained, we were given the final measure of the twenty items using the Likert Method. We examined the final measure and reached tile following conclusions. 1.The internal-consistency reliability of our group membership test is very high :r_<xx> =.84, and accordingly we believe that the homogeneity of each item to the total score is also high. 2.By our group membership test, between the membership in the first test July and that in the second test in October, we could not find a correlation. So we believe our `membership' is changeable. But, the amount of change largely depends on the subjects' grades in schools. 3.It is difficult to find the retest reliability of our group membership test, for our `membership' is very changeable. In our study, we presented the simpler 5 point method as well as the point converted by the method of Sigma Value.
In order to measure the mental tension we selected the following 5 phenomena: Electroencephalogram, Microvibration, Galvanic skin reflex, Plethysmogram, Pneumograph, and observed the development of tension from the beginning to the peak of it. The method of study. The examinees were five women, 21-25 years of age. We employed following two kinds of suggestion in order to cause mental tension. Suggestion I. "You shall have an electric shock in 7 minutes from now." Suggestion 2. "You shall have an electric shock stronger than you had before, in 7 minutes from now." (though it was not really stronger.) The result of study. (1)The Electroencephalogram, after the beginning of tension, showed a decrease in α wave and an increase in β wave. (2) The Galvanic skin reflex, from the beginning of tension, showed more frequent appearances and lager amplitude. (3) The Microvibration, as tension rose, showed a decrease in α wave and a conspicuous incr6ase in θ wave. (4)The plethysmogram, from the beginning of tension, showed more frequent oscillation of the standard line, but smaller amplitude. (5)The Pneumograph, from the beginning of tension, showed an increase of frequency in breathing.
Subjects were 45 females. They were stratified on simple reaction time into three groups, group with fast simple reaction time, moderate reaction time and slow reaction time. Then, all the groups were demanded to practice 12 series of the visual discrimination response tasks. In the early stages of practice, there was no significant difference concerning discrimination response time among three groups. However, difference in response time became clear between "fast group" and other two groups, along with the progress of trials. To examine the fact further, discrimination response time was fractionated into 2 phases, namely time of initiating response and movement time. Initiating response time of the "fast group" was shorter than other two groups' throughout the process, but there was no significant difference among movement time of the three groups. Simple reaction time was highly correlated with discrimination response time at the end of the trial (r=0.70).
The agility has long been accepted as one of the motor fitness elements by the majority of researchers, and so far, is the most reliable indicator for the physical fitness evaluation. Although a number of the agility tests have been introduced by various authors, its definition has not yet been clearly made. The purposes of this study were (1) to analyze the agility, (2) establish the detonation most appropriate for describing "General Agility", and finally (3) to propose a new testing device in order to measure the defined general agility of the human body. Several experimental and statistical studies for the various agility tests, for example, Burpee Test, Side Step Test were given in this study other than the proposed JST. The following results were obtained: 1) The general agility was defined as an agility to move the body into multiple directions as fast as possible. 2) The objectivity, reliability and simplicity were higher in J.S.T. than in other tests, and J.S.T. has been found appropriate as an instrument to evaluate the defined "general agility". 3) Norms and classification tables were prepared for the all age groups by sex to be used for tile estimation of the defined agility, and to be one of the indicators for the physical fitness status of the individual.
After the review of various studies on the factors of the motor ability, muscular strength, muscular endurance, explosive strength, speed, coordination, balance, agility, and flexibility were considered to be very important to measure the motor ability. Then, thirteen test items Which have been thought and used to measure these areas of motor ability were selected considering the practicability of tests for kindergarten children. The 13×13 correlation matrix was constructed with the data that were obtained by administering these items to kindergarten children sample; 107 boys and 105 girls, ranging from five to less has six years of age. The incomplete principal component solution and normal varimax rotation Were applied to these correlation matrix. Then, six factors were extracted and five of them could be interpreted in the case of boys and all of them interpreted in the case of girls. Considering the practicability, reliability of the items and results of factor analysis, it might be concluded that the test batteries of five items for boys and of six items for girls could be constructed; for boys, standing-long-jump, grip- strength, ball-bcunde, trunk-flexion, single-foot standing, for girls, standing-long-jump, grip strength, ball-baunce, trunk-flexion, spot-stepping, body-support by arms. The conclusion of this study is based only on the small sample, and it needs to develop this study with different samples and larger samples. Relationships between motor ability and character, mental ability, and physical fitness, for kindergarten children, should be also studied from this study in future.
1966 through 1967, the developmental amount of the motor ability has been observed. While some cause variables that are thought to affect the development of the motor ability heredity, economy, time study, intelligence, nutrition, sex-maturity, hemal condition, cultural influences were surveyed and measured. Then, how the cause variables had affected to the development of the motor ability was discussed with the factor analytical method. 1.The cause variables that affected to the development of the motor ability were found the same in both boys and gils. 2.In boys intelligence, economy, nutrition, hemal condition, heredity were found to be the important variables. On the other hand in addition to these variables, the learning was also found to be the important variable for girls. 3.The degree of the effects of the cause variables were shown in the correlation coefficients with the factor of the motor ability developmental amount. For example, in boys, intelligence correlates .665, economy .652, nutrition .592, hemal condition .550, heredity .470 with the developmental amount of the motor ability in general.