Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 13 , Issue 4
Showing 1-13 articles out of 13 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1969 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages Cover13-
    Published: March 30, 1969
    Released: December 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Appendix
    1969 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages App5-
    Published: March 30, 1969
    Released: December 31, 2016
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  • Shinshiro EBASHI, Masaru IKEDA
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 235-241
    Published: March 30, 1969
    Released: December 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In accordance with the shorter working hours, changes of work patterns and conditions by the technical innovation, leisure has become an important dimension particularly for youth workers because they are in the process of physical and personal development. In Japan, many youth workers come from rural communities and are working at the industries or companies located in the urban areas. They have to adapt themselves to a new environment, both in work and leisure. They intend to engage in most of their leisure time as the means of adjustment to their new lives and environments. In order to provide desirable recreation programs and facilities for their physical and personal development, it is necessary for the companies and communities to understand there interests and needs for leisure timeactivities. The purposes of this study were to analyze recreation activities and interests of the female youth workers in the textile industries and to find whether there were some significant differences in their activities and interested relative to their ages and residential types.
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  • Iwao MATSUDA, Takashi SUGIHARA
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 242-250
    Published: March 30, 1969
    Released: December 31, 2016
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    The rapid and appropriate reaction to a ball and opponents in games is an important ability in sport activities. One of the important factors of the learning of motor skills is such a discrimination response that perceives the stimuli and reacts them without errors. The learning of discrimination response is a very important contributor to the learning of gross motor skills. (3) The existing studies on warming-up effects and fatigue have been concerned with the effects of the physical activities on the mental functions. They assented that the physical activity activated the central nervous system and facilitated its function, but activity being too much and long time tended to inhibit its function. (1)(6) Suzuki (11)reported that the activation of the central nervous system of the athletes in a training camp was higher than usual. Kashiwabara and his collaborators (7) (8) (9) made athletes, in a training camp and children in the practicing of school sports, work "addition tasks" and found that the physical activity tended to have a negative effect on the amount of addition tasks in the early stages of the work and increased the performance in the latter stages of the work. And they found that the way of the effect depended on the individual personality of athletes and children. Hayashi (5) made pupils work addition task after the class of physical education and found the same results as Kashiwabara did. Aotani (2)reported that both of the amount of the work of multiplication and division and its errors tended to increase after the physical activity on bicycle ergometer. The results of the above mentioned researches do not fully coincide with one another. This discord partly came from the lack of precise measurement of the amount of the physical activity. In the present paper the authors used bicycle ergometer by which the precise measurement was made possible, and used discrimination response task in the administration of the psychomotor task to see the effect of the physical activity on the mental and psychomotor task. A factor analytical research in the learning of a visual discrimination reaction task by Fleishman, E.D. and Hempel,W.E. (4) showed that in the early stages of the learning the learning ability of the spatial characteristics of the stimuli and the responses and verbal comprehension were the chief contributors to the learning, but in the latter stages reaction time and other psychomotor abilities became more important factors. Suzuki and his collaborators (12) studied the contribution of the reaction time to see the visual discrimination response task to confirm the result of Fleishman's study and found that not the time of the arm movement but the rapidity of the initiation of the movement was more important for the learning of the task. They deviled subjects into two groups based upon their scores of simple reaction time. In the early stages of learning of the discrimination redaction task there was not a significant difference between the improvement in two groups, but in the latter stages of learning the improvement of the group whose simple reaction time was quicker was better than that of the slow reaction time group. Being suggested by these studies that the effects of physical activity on learning might vary with the situation in with the physical activity is practiced, the present study was intended to find if the physical activity would have any different effect on the learning in its early stages and the latter stages.
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  • Michio IKAI, Sadayoshi TAGUCHI
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 251-259
    Published: March 30, 1969
    Released: December 31, 2016
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    Attempts to measure blood flow and gas exchange in exercising muscle have been done for many years. In 1939, Holling measured the resting oxygen intake in the human forearm muscles by applying Fick principle. Using the same principle, Love (1955) studied the effect of exercise on oxygen intake in human forearm muscles. On the other hand, Jarisch et al (1929) and Asmussen et al (1939) used another method based on the idea that oxygen intake in a certain limb segment should be equal to the fall in respiratory oxygen intake followed by occluding circulation to that limb. As a part of the series of ; experimental works on muscular endurance, the present study was designed to measure the muscle oxygen intake at rest and following rhythmic exercise by using Fick principle (Ikai et al. l965, 1965, 1968).Ultrasonic measurement was applied to this study for the calculation of the oxygen intake of the acting muscle tissue in exhaustive exercise.
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  • Koichi HIROTA, Toshio ASAMI, Hiroshi TOYODA, Daisen SHIMAZU
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 260-265
    Published: March 30, 1969
    Released: December 31, 2016
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    During the past years, in order to find out Ama's (female fishing diver) adaptability to dive and fish in the water many anthropometric and physiological studies have been made and reported mainly by Japanese and Korean investigators. T. Ogawa (1), Yamamoto (2), and S. Ogawa (3) reported that physical constitution was better in the Ama as compared with the non-Ama. Shibuya (4), Oka (5), Tatai (6), S. Ogawa (7), and Song (8) measured the physical fitness and cardio-respiratory functions of the Ama, and found that Ama had generally better functions than those of normal women. But there were no observations on maximum oxygen intake and maximum oxygen debt of the Ama as the most valuable indices of aerobic and anaerobic work capacities. So this study was designed to measure these items on the Ama and to compare with those of normal women.
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  • Kunihiko KIMURA, Fumio OHTSUKI, Yoshitake NISHIBAYASHI
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 266-276
    Published: March 30, 1969
    Released: December 31, 2016
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    In this paper it is discussed whether the exercises of Judo has same effects on the growth or the ultimate dimensions of the head and face. The approach to the problem consisted of two parts; the cephalometric study based on the cross-sectional data obtained from the subjects from 15 to 29 year old, and the radiocephalogrammetric study made on students from 18 to 24 years of age. The subjects were all males, who were categorized into the Judo group and the control group. From the first approach, it was found that the mean values of the head and face dimensions were significantly longer and broader in the Judo group than in the control, and that these differences became more distinct with age. And from the second approach, The following results were obtained; the dimensional differences in the head between two groups were not due to the scalp and muscle, nor to the cranial cavity and brain, but were due to the thickness of bone plate, especially to that of dipole. From these facts, it was assumed that the increase in the muscle mass resulted from the exercises of Judo might exert an influence on the growth of outer bony layer of cranium.
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  • Katsumi TSUKAGOSHI, Hirohiko KAGAYA, Teruya AMEMIYA, Yoshio KURODA
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 277-286
    Published: March 30, 1969
    Released: December 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The collection of the expired air is one of the most fundamental procedures used for studying the respiratory function of human subjects. For this reason, many investigators have used Douglas bags and respiratory masks (half mask) with "J" valve or mouthpieces. However, the authors had found several times that some well-trained and excellent athletes often complained and expressed distress or unconfortableness which seemed to be caused by the insufficient air ventilation through tubes and valves in the mask. It seems to suggest that the airway valves in the experimental mask disturb natural respiratory movement. In order to determine or evaluate human pulmonary-respiratory capacity, it would be necessary to employ the airway valves which are large enough to allow natural breathing movement. Therefore, for this reason the authors devised several masks each of which had different inner diameters of airway valves (strictly speaking, it means the inner diameter of tube of valve.) and tried to examine the effects of them, as well as the sizes of connective tubes used, on the pulmonary ventilation in terms of oxygen uptake of human subjects running until exhausted on a treadmill.
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  • Tetsuo MESHIZUKA, Akira NAGATA
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 287-296
    Published: March 30, 1969
    Released: December 31, 2016
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    In the field of research in physical exercises utilized for the school physical education, sports competitions and recreation, much regarding those for younger generation by various serious-minded and academic workers have been introduced, and enriched the background for why of the physical exercises needed for the human welfare and life. As far as those for the middle and old aged adults are concerned, however, the research works especially on the reliable standards of physical fitness assessment, together with those for the human infants and young children have long been ignored. While a number of the physical fitness test batteries are available and also applied to young people in many countries today, those for the adult generation are still few as the bibliographical survey reveals to us. The Ministry of Education in Japan, accepting the advice of the Health and Physical Education Council, has prepared a set of "Adult Physical fitness Test" in this regard, and encouraged a nation-wide application of the test since 1966, in succession to its youth physical fitness tests. This report, therefore, deals mainly with the result of 1966 statistical survey of the test in addition to a brief description on the test, which was introduced by the author as an initia1 pre-test form. Some test items included in youth physical fitness tests, such as (1)back-strength, (2) trunk extension and flexion, (3) step-test, and (4) endurance run were omitted due to expected danger and accidents for the elderly populations that may be inactive and ill-trained in their daily lives. It is the author's wish that some refernce data to this report may be presented later so that a continuous cross-cultural and inter-nationak comparison may be enabled and developed further.
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  • Tetsuo MESHIZUKA, Mitsuo NAKANISHI
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 297-304
    Published: March 30, 1969
    Released: December 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Besides the young athletes, concerns towards the improvement of physical fitness of the nonetheless of all age levels as well, increased greatly here in Japan year by year, and many physical fitness test batteries have been composed and applied in order to reveal their actual status of physical fitness. Simplified test batteries with reliable norms, however, are literally none in spite of the strong social demands. The reason seems to lie in a fact that it is not always easy to obtain suitable simple test items accompanied by scientifically and statistically accurate norms for the evaluations and diagnosis of physical fitness levels, though many simplified test items per se are found and available. The purpose of this study was to establish the norms of these simple test items by collecting the fundamental data Samples as many as possible in the country for all ages as long as the applicability of the item permit.
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  • Masahiko UDO, Takashige KATAYAMA
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 305-311
    Published: March 30, 1969
    Released: December 31, 2016
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    The administration of physical education plays an important part in the promotion of school physical education, in which physical education teachers play a very important role. Therefore, the present authors had taken up some problems concerning the training of physical educator from the administrative stand point because they think that the promotion of school physical education is greatly dependent upon the quality of the teachers. Unfortunately, in Japan, very few studies have been made in this aspect of the problems; so, the authors intended to give new light of analysis to such a problem as the administration of physical education, specifically, of the problem of in-service training of physical education teachers.
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  • Aiyoshi KAWAHATA, Yoshiyuki MATSUURA
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 312-321
    Published: March 30, 1969
    Released: December 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In Japan, the physical examination is compulsory to all pupils and students, and it is administered in April every year. This physical examination has been carried on under the law and administered by school physicians with common examination technique. Such a systematical physical measurement and examination may not be observed in the world except in Japan. Around the time when this kind of physical examination was started, the items measured were mainly body height and weight, but later such items as physiological functions, disease, nutrition, etc. have been legislated to be examined. However, from 1940 to 1947, this examination was executed for only sampled pupils in the eight prefectures sampled from all because of World War II. The first objective of this paper is to analyze the data of physical examination published by the Ministry of Education which have been resulted from such a large scale physical examination carried out for 68 years. The second one is to determine the relative degree of contribution of factors, which are supposed to be important to the amount of growth and development of physique of pupils.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1969 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages App6-
    Published: March 30, 1969
    Released: December 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (16K)
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