Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 44 , Issue 3
Showing 1-13 articles out of 13 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 3 Pages Cover9-
    Published: May 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (513K)
  • Type: Cover
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 3 Pages Cover10-
    Published: May 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (513K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 3 Pages App4-
    Published: May 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (264K)
  • Yukito Muraki
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 3 Pages 227-240
    Published: May 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper reviews the processes of formation and development of periodization in the theory of sport training, and attempts to identify problems on which future study should be focused. A major criticism of the classical periodization theory of Matvejev was the realities of top-level sports activities, which have now approached the mature stage and become uncoupled from the theory. These are problems that have been taken up as future topics in the classic theory, but have not been thoroughly solved. One is the problem of training charatteristics for each stage of athletic development, especially in the junior period and mature stage. Other problems have been related to training speciality due to classified sport events, especially speed-strength events and ball games. However, it cannot be ruled out that the development cycle of sport-form is an essential factor of periodization. Skepticism of analytical training study has been directed at the inseparable nature of exercise as basic training, being characterized by pleiotropy and polysemy. A new approach to solving this has been emerging in training studies, which discuss the effects of physiological load in training exercises specialized for technical dnd tactical training. The primary problem in future training studies will be the structuring of Sports training and the competition system as a versatile preparation process for the improvement and stability of sports performances. In addition, integration of conditions and technical-tactical training will be indispensable.
    Download PDF (1755K)
  • Koji Takenaka, Koichiro Oka, Yukari Oba
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 3 Pages 241-258
    Published: May 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A study was conducted to clarify the relationship between the characteristics of sport, eating behavior, and menstrual symptoms in female athletes. In Study 1, two groups of female athletes, identified by sport characteristics of body image and weight restriction (forced athletes : FA; and unforced athletes : UFA), and a non-exerciser group (control : C), were first classified into three menstrual states (amenorrhoeic : AS; oligomenorrhoeic; OS; and normal : NS) on the basis of self-reports. They then completed measurements of physique (height, weight, and BMI) and phydicdl composition (% fat) , and the Garner's Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) . It was found that the FA group had a significantly larger frequency of AS and OS than the UFA and C groups. Analysis of variance revealed that the FA group had significantly lower %fat than the UFA and C groups. The FA group showed larger scores for some factors of the EDI relative to the other groups. Furthermore, AS and OS individuals also had low %fat dnd, large scores for some EDI factors. In Study 2, 5 high- and 5 low-score subjects were selected from each group of Study 1 according to the EDI to examine their menstrual symptoms. All subjects performdd the Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Menstrual Symptom Questionnaire (MSQ) each day for about one month. The data for the 7 days prior to, and the 7 days after the onset of menstruation were adopted to analyze the STAI and MSQ for comparison among the groups (FA, UFA and C) and eating behavior status (high and low EDI). It was found that the STAI and MSQ scores clearly increased around the day of menstruation onset in all groups, and that the UFA group had significantly smaller responses from day to day than the FS and C groups. While only the UFA group was superior to the other groups for psychological indices in relation to menstruation, both the athlete groups showed higher scores for physical symptoms than the C group. This suggests that while regular exercise may improve pychological responses to menstruation, it worsens physical symptoms such as pain. Especially, the drive for thinness and weight restriction may enhance the physical and psychological responses accompanying menstruation.
    Download PDF (2067K)
  • Toshihiko Tsutsumi, Brian M. Don, Leonard D Zaichkowsky, Koji Takenaka ...
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 3 Pages 259-273
    Published: May 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the present study, we investigated the effects of a lO-week strength training program on stress reactivity. Thirty five college women were assigned randomly to one of three groups : high intensity strength training (n=12), moderateintdnsity strength training (n=12),or control condition (n=11). All subjects underwent psychological, physical fitness and cardiovascular stress reactivity assessments before and after the 10-week training period. Tests of physical fitness included muscle strength and endurance (muscular fitness), body composition, and cardiovascular fitness, including maximal oxygen uptake (VO_2max) and minutes to reach 85% of age-predicted heart rate maximum. Measures of physical self-efficacy assessed perceived confidence for various muscular tasks. Heart rate (HR),systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) responses were measured during psychosocial stress. The results demonstrated that training at both strength intensities significantly improved muscular fitness and body composition, whereas neither high nor moderate intensity training altered aerobic fitness. It was also found that strength training significantly reduced cardiovascular reactivity upon exposure to various psychosocial stressors in college women. There was a negative association between cardiovascular reactivity and physical self-efficacy. While it is clear that the reductions in physiological responses to stress were independent of the aerobic components, cognitive-behavioral factors may play some important roles in the modification of psychophysiological responses to stress.
    Download PDF (1599K)
  • Shigehiro Tsukamoto, Seijiro Tsutsui, Toru Hirose
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 3 Pages 274-284
    Published: May 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Some authors have considered that guidance may be most effective in early practice when the task is unfamiliar to the learner. However, we predicted that guidance might not be effective even in the early practice period, or in performance and learning when acquiring an unfamiliar task. We planned to examine the above two points by having subjects learn a new bimanual coordination task, in which they were instructed to make a circle on a monitor screen in the 90 degree relative phase. We set up four groups; 1) control, 2) guidance, 3) observation learning, 4) advance organizer. The advance organizer group was provided the following information before leaning. (1) The movement of the right hand reflects horizontal movement on the monitor and movement of the left hand reflects vertical movement. (2) The meaning of in-phase, anti-phase, and 45 and 135 relative phase were also explained. An expert model was used for observation learning. Subjects were instructed to watch the model's movement anywhere. The guidance group and the observation learning group performed one trial by themselves after one guidance or observation trial each on the first day. They performed fhree trials by themselves after one guidance or observation trial on the second day; and ther performed all trials by themselves on the third day. The retention test was performed one week after the third day.Five trials were performed in the retention test. The results were as follows: 1) Every grup improved from the first day to the third day. 2) In the perfofmance on the third day, the guidance group showed significantly worse performance than the other groups. 3) In the retention test, the advance organizer group performed significantly better than the other groups, and the control group performed significantly better than the guidance group. Thus it was shown that guidance was not effective even in early practice when the task was unfamiliar to the learner. It was also shown that guidance was not effective for learning or performance when acquiring an unfamiliar task. The advance organizer relaked to time structure on the monitor was most effective for acquisition of the task.
    Download PDF (1352K)
  • Koji Takenaka
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 3 Pages 285-293
    Published: May 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (1012K)
  • Kazuyuki Taketani
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 3 Pages 294-298
    Published: May 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (634K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 3 Pages 299-312
    Published: May 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (1123K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 3 Pages 313-
    Published: May 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (648K)
  • Type: Cover
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 3 Pages Cover11-
    Published: May 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (33K)
  • Type: Cover
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 3 Pages Cover12-
    Published: May 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (33K)
feedback
Top