Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 23 , Issue 2
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1978 Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages Cover5-
    Published: September 25, 1978
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1978 Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages Cover6-
    Published: September 25, 1978
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (31K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1978 Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages App3-
    Published: September 25, 1978
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Koichi IKEDA, Masaharu Ohashi
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages 99-108
    Published: September 25, 1978
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Every sport is, more or less, introduced and / or popularized through school physical education. As for skiing, however, the 13th Takada Army Division carried such a role after 1911, which may be an exceptional case in the development of sports in Japan. Schools, then, paid little attention on skiing and no effort was provided f6r spreading this winter sport. The major theme of this study was to clarify the process of introducing skiing in school physical education and its 'background by use of historical materials left in public musiums and libraries in Niigata Prefecture in Taisho era. The tentative conclusions may be summerized as follows: 1)The educational policy of Niigata Prefecture in Taisho era was to place emphasis on physical education. 2)The teachers of school physical education succeeded the ski instruction of the 13th Takada Army Division. 3)School physical education in winter adopted skiing with other plays on the snow, and 4)The skiing of school physical education became popular in the middle of Taisho era.
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  • Takaaki Niwa, Kuniko Nagasawa
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages 109-119
    Published: September 25, 1978
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The factors determining female university students' sport participation were examined by analyzing such items as their experiences of athletic group activities at high school and university, the reasons for participating in sports, promotive or impedimental causes to their sports participation and so forth. The survey was conducted in class to 996 students toward the end of school year by questionnaire method. The analyses of variance and stepwise multiple regression were applied to the data, and on analyses following results were obtained: 1)The longer the period of their athletic group activities at high school, the more sports participation is seen at university. 2)Among such factors as play, health, socializing, skill and exploration which determine the reason for sports participation, the factor of play exerts the greatest influence and the least is that of skill. 3)As to the factors determining the frequency of sports participation, the experience of participating in athletic group is the most dominant, and next ones are preconditions of various kinds which act as promotive or impedimental causes to their sports participation. As for the former factor the experience of athletic group activities at university is the most influential upon the frequency of their sports participation, and the frequency at high school comes next. Among the latter ones willingness of participating in sports is of the greatest importance, and then followed by co-participants, free time and financial conditions in this order. 4)The kinds of sports the subjects practiced at athletic groups in the past are very liable to be chosen both at present and in future when the chance for sports participation is or will be available for them, and the more recently they were practiced, the more they tend to be chosen at present and also in future. 5)The kinds of sports the subjects wish to play in future are easy and light ones to be enjoyed in a small group. Hard and heavy ones which require large quantity of motion marked the least preference.
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  • Yutaka Sato, Kiyomi Nishimura
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages 121-128
    Published: September 25, 1978
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    This research was performed on the practical apprenticeship of the students for a four-week period, from May 23 to June 20, in 1977. They major in Health and Physical Education, at the Department of Education, Hiroshima University. The main purpose of this research was to elucidate the changing processes of the student teachers view of instruction and their teaching techniques, especially through the practice of instructions of their practice program. In this research; a) Observation Method, b) Interview Method, and c) Description Method were used. The results are as follows: 1)The teaching techniques of students teachers were recognized to evolve in hierarchical order and moreover these teaching techniques proved to be grasped as four hierarchical levels differed qualitatively. 2)The objective optimization of instructions and evaluation in practice techniques was perceived to be possible by clarifying the standard of development in teaching techniques of student teachers. 3)The development in the teaching view and the recognition of instruction was observed to be improved by promoting the independent discussion among student teachers. 4)The cycle of observation-participation-teaching practice-discussion of instructions must be emphasized, organized and structured, to heighten the effectiveness of students' practices.
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  • Yoshiyuki Matsuura
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages 129-140
    Published: September 25, 1978
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It is reasonable to assume that the motor ability of children is quite different in quality from that of youth and adult. That is, it is very rational that the children's motor ability should be assessed in terms of repertoire of their capable motor performance patterns. From this basic assumption, the skill development in ball-handling performances, which are very familiar with most of children, was investigated in this study. 275 kindergarten children were used as a sample. And 24 kinds of ball-handling performances, as a test battery, were administered to them in pass or fail form. In order to extract the ball-handling skills from the view point of linear model of motor ability, the principal factor analysis was applied to the correlation matrix which was computed with 24 items and, with all data pooled. Six principal factors were extracted and interpreted as follows; ball handling with hands, throw for accuracy with small ball, throw for accuracy, kick the rolling ball to aim, kick the placed ball to aim, and catching the flying ball. Then, the developmental tendency was studied in terms of these six skill areas of ball-handling performances. The ball-handling of passive nature, such as catching the rolling ball, bouncing ball and flying ball, showed a very definite tendency of development, but the ball-handling skills of active nature, such as throw for accuracy and kick the ball to aim, did not show any definite tendency of development in childhood. Then, testing the differences in the ball-handling skill scores of 24 kinds between the different age groups, many of their differences between 4 years of age and 5 in boys, and between 3 and 4 in girls were found significant statistically at 0.05 level, so it could be inferred that this type of motor skill, particularly ball-handling skills of passive nature, showed a definite tendency of development in these years of childhood.
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  • Hajime Kishimoto, Keiichiro Baba
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages 141-151
    Published: September 25, 1978
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    This study was intended to investigate the developmental tendencies of motor ability in children as measured by various items of pass-or-fail type. Total of 612 pupils (317 boys and 295 girls), ranging in age from 6 to 12 years, were tested by 67 items partly revised from Kano's motor ability test, during the period from Nov. 1976 through Mar. 1977. The test consisted of such items as body balancing, body coordination, manual dexterity, reverse action of arms or legs, and imitating. The results were summarized as follows: 1. In general, the developmental tendencies of the motor ability were classified into 8 types, which seems to be in agreement with the result obtained in the preceded studies. 2. Boys were superior to girls in such items as ball throw and catch, but were inferior, especially in pupils of the lower grades, in nervous control of fingers and rhythmical movement of body. 3. In comparison with the preceded study (Masaki 1961), the higher percentage of pass was found in such items as ball handing and jump as well as writing speed and scissors manipulation. Decrease in percentage of pass was observed on items concerning body balancing and performance with eyes closed. 4. As a whole, the development of motor ability in the present study was remarkably accelerated in the lower grades in comparison with the original data in which these tests were standardized 30 years ago.
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  • Shuichi KOMIYA, Kazutoshi KIKKAWA
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages 153-164
    Published: September 25, 1978
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Hidetsugu NISHIZONO, Mitsumasa MIYASHITA
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages 165-171
    Published: September 25, 1978
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The conduction velocity in muscle in situ has been measured directly by means of needle-electrodes. In the present study, the authors tried to develop a method for the estimation of conduction velocity with surface-electrodes. The subjects were four healthy adult males, aged 23 to 29 years. EMGs were led off from m. biceps brachii by several surface-electrodes and a bipolar fine-wire electrode during isometric weak contraction with the arm bent at right angles. Seven or eight surface-electrodes (8mm in diameter) were placed on the belly along the muscle (interelectrode distance was 20mm). A bipolar fine-wire electrode was inserted in the middle of the muscle. (Fig. 1) The EMGs recorded on the magnetic tape were analyzed through a mini-computer system (ATAC-2300). By triggering a signal averager from spike potentials of single motor units recorded by the inserted electrode, the average contribution of single units to the surface EMG could be extracted. (Fig. 3) The conduction velocity in m. biceps brachii, determined from the averaged waves of each surface-electrode was 4.6±0.5m/s. Also the conduction velocity estimated from the cross-correlation analysis between the two EMGs led off by two different surface-electrodes was 4.4m/s.
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  • Hiroyuki TOMURA
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages 173-181
    Published: September 25, 1978
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    With 637 primary school children of the second, fourth and sixth grades (including 317 boys and 320 girls); the motor ability test and three mental tests (the sociometric test, the Y-G personality test and the adjustment test) were administered and the relationship between motor ability and mental characteristics (social status, personality and adjustment) was analysed. The results are as follows: 1. The children who were superior in motor ability were more popular and were liked better than those who were inferior in this ability among the same grade groups: the children who were popular in the group were superior in motor ability to those who were disliked and isolated. Such a tendency was more pronounced in boys than in girls, and in lower grades than in higher ones. 2. In the relationship between motor ability and personality, there was a little difference between sexes and grades. But it was proved that the group who were superior in motor ability were more stable emotionally, more lively in action and had greater social leadership than the group rated inferior in motor ability. 3. In motor ability and adjustment, there were some differences between boys and girls. The boys who were superior in motor ability showed better adjustment to themselves and society than the boys rated inferior in motor ability. However, in the case of girls, the tendency was not so pronounced as observed in the boys.
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  • Tetsuo Meshizuka
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages 183-191
    Published: September 25, 1978
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1978 Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages 193-200
    Published: September 25, 1978
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Appendix
    1978 Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages App4-
    Published: September 25, 1978
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (39K)
  • Type: Cover
    1978 Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages Cover7-
    Published: September 25, 1978
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (33K)
  • Type: Cover
    1978 Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages Cover8-
    Published: September 25, 1978
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (33K)
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