Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 35 , Issue 4
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 35 Issue 4 Pages Cover11-
    Published: March 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 35 Issue 4 Pages Cover12-
    Published: March 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (188K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 35 Issue 4 Pages App4-
    Published: March 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Miho Koishihara
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 35 Issue 4 Pages 301-311
    Published: March 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of the present paper is to examine the literary image of athleticism. In this paper, "Tom Brown's schooldays" by Thomas Hughes published in 1857 is analyzed. This work may be regarded as educational literature written with didactic intent. This intent of the novelist must be considered in relation to the structure of his novel. By concentrating on the concepts of "manliness" in this work, the main findings are summarized as follows: (1) The author preach to boys readers: to be free from class consciousness,quit themselves like men,learn to box, and find the true friendship in their schoollife. (2) These points are carefully constructed as his narrative plan; Manly exercises and achievements are emphasized in Part One, and manly characters: truthfulness, responsibility,consideration for others; are emphasized in Part Two, by novelist's choice of incidents. (3) Both concepts of "manliness" are attained by Tom through his public schoollife and games serve the important function of developping his character. (4) Behind the teaching moral manliness lay the stress of self-control against sexuality and bodily sensations, which reflects the victorian morality.
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  • Shiro Nakagomi, Junji Kishi
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 35 Issue 4 Pages 313-323
    Published: March 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Recently, sports psychologists and coaches have been taking a growing interest in mental training not only for improving athletic performance but also for the benefit of the athletes'mental health. Athlete's burnout is one of the important topics in the realm of mental health for athletes. The purpose of the present study is to clarify the formation process of athlete's burnout through the examination of five cases. The subjects utilized in this study consisted of two psychotherapeutic clients, two research interview study cases and another case consisting of materials concerning the suicide of a world-class long distance runner. All subjects were diamosed as burnout cases by recognizing the particular process &ltenthusiasm→stagation→clinging to sports→exhaustion&gt which we have proposed as one the of diagnostic criteria for athlete's burnout. Three of these cases were also assessed by two psychological tests which determined their degree of burnout. Various events or factors contributing to the formation of burnout were extracted from interview records, and charts were individually drawn to illustrate the formation process.Additionally, tendencies common among each of the cases were depicted by the montage method developed by Mita. The authors discuss the psychological mechanism of the formation of athlete's burnout, in terms of caune-result relationship, according to the following four main factors : 1) A premorbid character as melancholic type or immodithymia. 2) Repeated experiences in which one's efforts are not rewarded (in the sports setting). 3) Difficulty in reformulation of ego identity. 4) Low mutuality in one's past crisis mode. The "clinging" stage in the formation process of burnout is caused by the above mentioned four factors. The authors especially find the "clinging" stage to be a key to understanding the development of burnout.
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  • Hiroshi Naka, Shiniichi Demura
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 35 Issue 4 Pages 325-339
    Published: March 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Demura and Naka (1990) reported that team performance in volleyball games could be classified into service and the following four group skills: A. the performance to get points: attacking after reception of attacking from service reception by opponent team (A-2), attacking after reception of attacking from reception by opponent team after A-2 (A-3), B. the performance to get side-outs: attacking after service reception (B-1), attacking after reception of attacking from reception by opponent team after B-1(B-2). In addition, they determined that four group skills consisted of various combinations based on liaison of component skills such as tossing, spiking, blocking and reception. Whether or not any component skill contributed higher to the achievement of group skills has been investigated little. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to determine the degree of contribution of component skills to the achievement of the group skills. As the group skills out of various attacking patterns, we selected attacking performed in liaison with blocking, reception, tossing and spiking in A-2, A-3 and B-2, and attacking performed in liaison with service reception, tossing and spiking in B-1, respectively. This selection has been made because of the fact that the above attacking patterns accounted for the majority of all attacking patterns occured in actual games. The gnmes were observed in the 1988 Spring League of six Intercollegiate Men's volleyball games in Kansai district, 128 sets with each team, and data were collected for in each omponent skill pattern. The analysis of theory of quantification II was used to determine the cntribution of each component skill to the achievement of the group skills. The main results can be summarized as follows: 1) In A-2 and A-3, tossing and spiking skills contribute highly to the achievement of attacking performed in liaison with blocking, reception, tossing and spiking. 2) In B-1, tossing skill has the high contribution to attacking performed in liaison with service reception, tossing and spiking. 3) In B-2, the contribution of reception and tossing skills is high in attacking performed in liaison with blocking, reception, tossing and spiking.
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  • Hideki Suzukui, Hisaya Tsujimoto, Akira Yamamoto
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 35 Issue 4 Pages 341-348
    Published: March 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of dietary composition of pre-exercise meal and feed-timing to liver and muscle glycogen depletion and lypolytic activity during prolonged exercise in rats. Rats were meal-fed twice a day with a normal diet for 3 weeks. They were divided into two groups on the final day of the experiment. One group of the rats were given a high-carbohydrate (H-CHO) diet and the other group high-fat (H-FAT) diet. Then, each dietary group were divided two groups. One group of either dietary groups were loaded a bout of 2-h swimming exercise 3 hr after the meal. Another group of either dietary groups were started exercise 7 hr after the meal. At the end of exercise serum concentration of glucose of that started exercise 3 hr after the meal was higher in H-CHO group than in H-FAT group. However, serum glucose levels in H-CHO group significantly decreased during exercise when started 3 hr after the meal as compared with H-FAT group. Glycogen contents in liver of both dietary groups significantly decreased during exercise. Although liver glycogen contents at the end exercise were sgnificantly higher in H-CHO group that started exercise 3 hr after the meal than in H-FAT group, no significant difference was found between the groups 7 hr after the meal. Furthermore, no significant difference was found on glycogen contents of soleus muscle in both dietary groups at the end of exercise both 3 and 7 hr after the meal. Lipolytic activities in H-FAT group were signjficantly increased during exercise and there were no differences between two cases of the starting time. However these trends were not observed in H-CHO group. From these results, it was suggested that effects of dietary composition of pre-exercise meal on the changes of liver and muscle glycogen depletion and lipolytic activity during prolonged exercise were different according to feed-timing.
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  • Masayuki Nara, Tatsuya Kasai
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 35 Issue 4 Pages 349-358
    Published: March 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The present study was designed to test whether varying limb positions prior to a voluntary elbow flexion influenced the simple EMG-RTs. Eight students were examined under the conditions of six limb positions (3 × 2); three different wrist positions (45 deg. extension; WE, 45 deg. flexion; WE and neutral; N) and two different forearm positions (supination position; S and pronation position; P). Under the those six conditions, EMG-RTs and motor evoked potentials were recorded. Main results may be summarized as follows: 1) In N position, EMG-RT of S was shorter than that of P position. In P position, different EMG-RTs were observed among three different wrist positions. In S position, however, EMG-RT differences were not observed. 2) In all conditions, variabilities of the velocity and the accuracy of the movement were not found to be related to changes in EMG-RTs. 3) In N position, amplitudes of MEP in S were larger than those in P. However, variabilities of the amplitudes and the latencies of MEPs were not found to be related to changes in EMG-RTs in different wrist positions. From those results obtained, it is suggested that the change of EMG-RTs with varying forearm positions is induced dependent on two factors; one is the different number of synergic muscles taking part in an intended movement as already indicated by the "memory drum theory", another is the change of activation of the CNS which might be influenced by the change of forearm positions, and that the change of EMG-RTs with varying wrist positions is induced according to the "memory drum theory".
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  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 35 Issue 4 Pages 359-395
    Published: March 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 35 Issue 4 Pages 397-400
    Published: March 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 35 Issue 4 Pages 401-
    Published: March 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 35 Issue 4 Pages 403-411
    Published: March 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Index
    1991 Volume 35 Issue 4 Pages 413-414
    Published: March 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 35 Issue 4 Pages 415-
    Published: March 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 35 Issue 4 Pages Cover13-
    Published: March 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (116K)
  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 35 Issue 4 Pages Cover14-
    Published: March 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (116K)
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