Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 23 , Issue 4
Showing 1-12 articles out of 12 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1979 Volume 23 Issue 4 Pages Cover13-
    Published: March 01, 1979
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1979 Volume 23 Issue 4 Pages Cover14-
    Published: March 01, 1979
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Download PDF (21K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1979 Volume 23 Issue 4 Pages App7-
    Published: March 01, 1979
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Minoru Sugasawa
    Type: Article
    1979 Volume 23 Issue 4 Pages 295-304
    Published: March 01, 1979
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The aim of this study is to propose a theory of human physical education based on the philosophy of life in Buddhism and to make a truly new discovery of human beings. The sequence of the argument is outlined as follows. Firstly, this study explains that the true entity of human beings has not been clarified through some consideration of several theories on the old monism of mind and body, and that the rapid progress of today's technological science has hitherto hindered the total comprehension of human beings. Secondly, this study explains the true entity of human beings through introduction of several theories from Life philosophy concerning the ontological consideration of human beings and the mind-body problem. And then, it expounds that a human being is a "life being" in the oneness of mind and body. Furthermore, it writes out for reference a list of three viewpoints of mind and body, comparing the Buddhist viewpoint with those of cerebro-physiology and depth-psychology. Thirdly, this study explains that the guiding idea to realized the dignity of human life in modern society should be such humanism as is based on philosophy of life. And it considers the idea of human physical education that is enforced through lifetime. Fourthly, this study pursues concretely creative personality through the practice of human physical education in terms of both physical activities and group activities. And it also tries to aufhaben the confrontation between a group and an individual within the realm of physical education by applying the logical processes of the practical realization based on the equality of value for all. Finally, the conclusion of the study strongly proposes human physical education that aims at the development of creative personality, as a desirable form of physical education which intends to solve the problems of chaotic modern society.
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  • Masashige Sugimoto
    Type: Article
    1979 Volume 23 Issue 4 Pages 305-314
    Published: March 01, 1979
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    "Physical culture in Amherst College," prepared by Nathan Allen at the request of the trustees of Amherst College, which first established the department of physical culture in the United States, makes us notice, when we read it from the viewpoint of physical education thoughts, the following three points: (1)Amherst College has these as its aims of physical culture, (a)"to facilitate, in the highest degree, mental culture" and (b)"to prevent disease." The college seems to have thought that physical culture should aim at "a good health of the whole body" for "a higher order of efficient study and intellectual life." This idea seems to have been influenced by a evangelical view of the body. (2)The concept of physical culture in this report is used as the purpose of physical culture is "to a good health of the whole body," and it has as its methods, (a)teaching to the students Hygiene including some general knowledge of Anatomy and Physiology and (b)making them have a gymnastics. (3)Amherst College has "Elocution" under the category of physical culture. These three points would give a new significance to the history of thoughts on physical education, because they have never been mentioned.
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  • Kiyokazu Kitamura, Miharu Miyamura, Chikashi Yamamoto, Hideji Matsui
    Type: Article
    1979 Volume 23 Issue 4 Pages 315-320
    Published: March 01, 1979
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Blood flow of the calf before and immediately after treadmill exercise was measured with two venous occlusion strain-gauge plethysmographies in eight healthy male subjects; one is a venous occlusion method using a cuff (Cuff method), and another is a venous occlusion method by which the vena femoralis is pressed to 2 to 3kg/cm^2 on the anterior surface of the inguino-crural near the sulcus inguinalis by means of a pressing apparatus (Press method). The calf blood flow was determined four times at about one minute intervals using the press and cuff venous occlusion method. The cuff method was used for the first and third trials and press method following the second and fourth. Four speeds of horizontal treadmill exercise were used at 80, 100, 120 and 140m/min. Each subject performed four trials of 4 minute duration for each speed except for the highest speed (140m/min) in which only two trials were completed. The reliability of both methods was ascertained from two values determined by the same method under the same condition for all subjects. The correlation coefficient for both methods was 0.94 (P < 0.001), and no significant difference was observed between the two values. Furthermore, it was found that there was a close correlation between calf blood flow obtained by the press and cuff methods (r = 0.94, P < 0.01), and no significant difference (t = 0.94, P > 0.1) between the items was observed. From these results, it is suggested that the press method is a reliable and effective technique for measuring calf blood flow at rest and after exercise.
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  • Michiyoshi Ae, Kanji Shibukawa, Isamu Kinpara
    Type: Article
    1979 Volume 23 Issue 4 Pages 321-331
    Published: March 01, 1979
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the performance of a human movement that requires great force and power, exertion of a large amount of force from throughout the main phase is necessary. From the viewpoint of neuromuscular function, this means that guick force development, maintenance of the great force and prompt force release will be necessary to obtain good performance in the human which involve explosive movements activities. In the present study, the effects of the preliminary force on fast development of the isometric force were investigated in elbow flexion. Nineteen male varsity track and field athletes were instructed to exert their maximum force as fast as possible from preliminary force of 0, 20, 50 and 80 percent of maximum force. Sampling interval of force was 2/511 sec. and the force was stored in a digital wave memory device which later was printed out. The exponential equation described by Yoshimoto, et al. was used to evaluate the obtained force-time relationship. Some results and a suggestion were summarzied as follows: 1)The force-time relationship of elbow flexion could be fitted to the equation, F = Fo + (Fm-Fo) {1 - e^<λ(t-B)>}, where F: force (kg), Fo: preliminary force (kg), Fm: maximum force (kg), λ: inverse of characteristic time of force development (1/sec.), B : dead time (sec.), t: time (sec.), e: natural logarithmic base. 2)As the preliminary force increased, the slow developing portion of the early part of force-time curve became small, and in the case of the contraction from 80 percent preliminary force the slow developing portion almost disappeared. 3)The exerted maximum force increased with the increase in the preliminary force, while the differences of the maximum force among four contractions were not significant. However, the force from the start of force development to 0.2 sec. in the contraction from 50 or 80 percent preliminary force was significantly larger than those of 0 and 20 percent one. 4)As the pleliminary force increased, it was observed that dead time (B) decreased and inverse of characteristic time of force development(λ) increased. 5)Inverse of characteristic time of force development in the sprinters was considerably larger in the contraction from 80 percent preliminary force than those of the other preliminary ones, while such a result has not been presented by distance runners. 6)In the performance of a human movement that requires great force and power, it might be recommended to maintain some preliminary force, followed by a quick force development in the main phase of the movement.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1979 Volume 23 Issue 4 Pages 333-354
    Published: March 01, 1979
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1979 Volume 23 Issue 4 Pages 355-368
    Published: March 01, 1979
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Appendix
    1979 Volume 23 Issue 4 Pages 369-
    Published: March 01, 1979
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1979 Volume 23 Issue 4 Pages Cover15-
    Published: March 01, 1979
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (25K)
  • Type: Cover
    1979 Volume 23 Issue 4 Pages Cover16-
    Published: March 01, 1979
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (25K)
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