Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 16 , Issue 2
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1971 Volume 16 Issue 2 Pages Cover5-
    Published: October 01, 1971
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1971 Volume 16 Issue 2 Pages Cover6-
    Published: October 01, 1971
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (32K)
  • Motokazu Kato
    Type: Article
    1971 Volume 16 Issue 2 Pages 61-66
    Published: October 01, 1971
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    In diesem Studium gilt es mir die uber die Entstehung umgebenden Probleme der Olympischen Spiele zu forschen und zu erklaren. Mein Studium beginnt damit, dass ich die folgenden drei Standpunkte festsetze. In der ersten Frage handelt es sich um die Beziehung mit den Olympischen Spielen in der ersten Periode im Altertum und der Agonistik in Homeros Odyssee, und noch dazu den verschiedenen Athletik in der Mythe oder Uberlieferung. Nach ihre Beziehung klairt es sehr gultig, dass sie die geschichtlich-gleichzeitige Erscheinung sind. In der zweiten Frage gilt es mir den religiosen Zusammenhang mit den Olympischen Spielen und der Zeus Verehruug zn denken. Fur diesen Zweck ist es wichtigst, den Zusammenhang mit der Zeus Verehrung in der Eleer und der Pelops Verehrung in Pisa zu forschen. Auch es ist zum Jahre 470 v.u.Z., dass der Zusammenhang mit der Zeus Verehrung und den Olympischen Spilen efestgestellt wird. In der driften Frage werde ich uber den Zusammenhang und die Bedeutung mit den 0lympischen Spielen und der Polis handeln. Nach meiner Meinung sind die Olympischen Spiele die Konkretion des griechischen Geistes und die Einheit des Griechentums in der Polis.
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  • Kunio Kikuchi
    Type: Article
    1971 Volume 16 Issue 2 Pages 67-74
    Published: October 01, 1971
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this study was to inquire histologically the relative effects of static training and dynamic training upon skeletal muscle fibers by making a distinction between red muscle fibers and white muscle fibers. The experimental animals, Wistar-strain rats, formed two experimental groups and performed muscular training exercises. Static training group was made to sustain one's body sticking at a tree for one hour a day and 6 days out of a week for a period of 40 days. Dynamic training group was compelled to run on the treadmill with a speed of 40 m/min., a distance of 250m, and 6 days out of a week for 40 days. Rats of the same venter were used as the control group. The histological method, using Sudan black B stain, was adopted. The results obtained were as follows: (1) The weight of each muscle of the rats' lower limbs increased in static and dynamic training groups.(2) In static training group, the increasing rate of the entire area of cross section of red muscle fibers in M. tibialis ant. was 15.0 %, and that of white muscle fibers was 11.1 %. In dynamic training group, the increasing rate of the entire area of cross section of red muscle fibers was 13.2 %, and that of white muscle fibers was 19.4 %. (3) The effect of training on the average area of cross section per fiber showed the same tendency as the effect of training on the entire area of cross section in static in and dynamic training groups.
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  • Shuichi Komiya
    Type: Article
    1971 Volume 16 Issue 2 Pages 75-84
    Published: October 01, 1971
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this study was to reveal the pattern of growth in height and the differences on functional development each patterns. The height and the physical fitness of 62 school boys in Meinohama, age 10.14, was studied in 1964-1968. The results of this study could be summarized as follows: 1. When 62 school boys were classified into the following 5 patterns according to their rate of growth in height in a year, it was found that the convex pattern had the most numerous. a. ascending pattern. b. descending pattern. c, convex pattern. d. concave pattern. e. mixed pattern Furthermore, it was found that this pattern had generally the most excellent growth from 10 to 14 years. On the other hand, the concave pattern had the worst growth in height. 2. When the samples were classified into 5 patterns according to their rate of growth in height in a year, it was found that the descending pattern and the convex pattern had the most excellent functional development. From these results, it may be said that the convex pattern are the most desirable pattern of growth in height.
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  • Emiko Kitamura, Yoshiyuki Matsuura
    Type: Article
    1971 Volume 16 Issue 2 Pages 85-89
    Published: October 01, 1971
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    In this paper the multivariate statistical analysis was applied to investigate the relation-ships between the sexual maturation and growth of physique. The Sample was consisted of 605 junior high school girls, and the items of physique measures were stature, body weight, chest girth and sitting height, and such items were administered April and the survey of menarche July in 1970. The samples were grouped into three groups, A, B, and C; group A consisted of those whose date of menarche was earlier than one standard deviation minus the sample average of the date of menarche, B wasi those who did not belong to A but had had menarch already, and C was those who did not have menarch yet. As far as the 4 items of physical measurements picked out here, the individual physique could be represented in 4 dimensional variable space. In order to visualize this space, the 2 dimensional principal component spaces were approximated to this variable space. This was done with principal component analysis. These two component axises could be interpreted as length component and breadth component, respectively. And these two component contributes to the total variance at 89.21%. Then, the mean vector and variance-covariance matrix of component scores were computed in each group, A, B, and C. Then, these values were put into (X-X)'Σ^<-1> (X-X)=C_0, where X stands for the mean vector and Σ variance-covariance matrix. This quadratic form represents the ellipes in the component space and also distributes as χ^2 with degree of freedom 2. Then, puttingχ^2(df=2,α=0.05) to C_0,these ellipses show the domain to which 95% of each group belong. In other words, these ellipses are good representation of each group in the component space. In all groups, X<Y, where X and Y are coordinate of ellipe center ; so the tendency of Ectomorphy may be inferred. The common domain between group A and C was very small; so it could be concluded that group A was superior in physique in general to group C, but the common domains between group A and B, and B and c were relatively large. That is, as far as the only average of physique items investigated separately, group A is superior to B and C, and group B to C, but such conclusions were found not always right, because the multivariate investigation showed that considerable percentage of group A had the same physique as group B and also group B as group C. However, the unique domain of group C was very large and the coordinates of these points in this domain were very small, so it can be inferred that considerable almount of group C hod the inferior physique.
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  • Hiroko Munetaka, Yoshiyuki Matsuura, Heihachi Munetaka
    Type: Article
    1971 Volume 16 Issue 2 Pages 91-97
    Published: October 01, 1971
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, it was discussed how much the community differences contributed to the growth and development of children in physique and motor ability. The island, the housing development and the urban areas were picked out as sample localltles. Samples extracted from these three areas were 244 children of 4 years of age and 288 of 5 years of age. Then, 4 items of physique and 13 items of motor ability were measured in July, 1970. Their family situations were also surveyed with questionnaire at the same time. It was concluded that the average size of family was larger in the island than in other areas. As for the parents' schooling career, the percentage of senior high school and college graduates were more than 80% in the urban sample, but it was much smaller in the island and the housing development samples. The significant difference in terms of locality could not be found in physique, but the island sample seemed to be superior to others in motor coordination and flexibility. The urban sample : is superior to others in all motor ability items except motor coordination and flexibility. In all communities the age difference was very significant especially in stature and sitting height and also significant in most items of motor ability with some exceptions. The age difference could be observed to be very significant in the most items of physique and motor abilities in the urban sample, so it might be concluded that the development in motor ability were more conspicuous in urban than in others. The sex difference was not observed significantly in all communities, but boys were superior in ball throw and girls in ball bouncing. This could be inferred that the differencein play habits of both sexes' caused such differences. The most interesting problem to determine how much each variable that was validated to contribute to growth and development in general. This could be made out by applying more precise research techniques and the survey concerning more various items.
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  • Tadafumi Mizuno, Shoji Aoyama, Hajime Kishimoto, Yasuyuki Yokoyama
    Type: Article
    1971 Volume 16 Issue 2 Pages 99-107
    Published: October 01, 1971
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It is generally believed that there are significant correlations between the height and various motor abilities of man. But it is rarely practiced to utilize these correlations as concrete criteria for evaluating students' motor abilities demonstrated in physical education activity classes. The purposes of this study were to elucidate these correlations between heights and motor abilities in taking account of their sizes of stature for practical use. Two thousand four hundred and thirtysix male students from 11 universities and 3 technical high schools were tested and measured on their height, weight, 50 meter. run, 100 meter run, vertical jump, and handball throw. It was conducted between November, 1968 and February, 1969. Both calculated correlation coefficients(r) and regression coefficients(b) were significant between heights and 50 meter run (5% level), 100 meter run (5% level), vertical jump (1% level), and handball throw (1% level), respectively. In this report, some of the standardized rating tables for the evaluation of university students' motor abilities were presented, being based on the obtained regression lines and their standard deviations from regression(S_x). The formula used for drawing regression lines was Y = y + b (x - a). Regression values (Y) and their standard deviations were used as criteria to make five ranked scales, which were divided according to Y ±_x, Y±_x. When these scales were applied to actual evaluation, the grades of about 15 to 30% of the total students were changed from their previous grades based on only their motor abilities. Therefore, the present investigators recommend to use these evaluating method even for the university students when trying to grade them fairly, i. e., negating some hereditary factors such as the size of stature and putting emphasis on students' efforts in performing various motor activities.
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  • Mikio Tokunaga, Kimio Hashimoto, Toshiki Chiwata
    Type: Article
    1971 Volume 16 Issue 2 Pages 109-114
    Published: October 01, 1971
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among physique, physical fitness and personality of students. The Physical Fitness Test which was standardized by the Department of Education and The Yatabe-Guilford Personality Test were administered to 288 freshmen of Kyushu university. The height and weight were investigated and Rohrer's Index was culculated. The results could be summarized as follows: 1. Relationship between physique and physical fitness: (1) The thiner body type (1. 2) had significantly lower physical fitness than the medium body type (3). (2) The thiner body type had lower muscle strength and endurance than the medium body type (4) and slightly fat body type (5). (3) There were significant relationships between physical fitness and height or weight.2. Relationship between physique and personality: (1) The eccentric type had more thinest body type (1) than other types. (2) There were no significant relationship between thinest body type and sligtly fat body type on the Y-G scales. (3) The positive type (B.D) were significantly heavier in weight than the average type.3. Relationship between physical fitness and personality: (1) The director type had significantly higher physical fitness than the eccentric type. (2) The lower physical fitness group (D.E) had significantly higher inferiority feelings, nervousness and subjectivity or lower cooperativeness, general activity, rathymia, ascendance and social extraversion on the Y-G scales than the upper physical fitness group(A. B). (3) The positive types (B.D) had significantly higher muscle strength than the negative types (C.E). The emotionally stable and socially adaptable types (C.D) had significantly higher flexibility than the lacking types of them (B.E).
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  • M. Matsui, S Abe, I. Hozawa, F. Suzuki
    Type: Article
    1971 Volume 16 Issue 2 Pages 115-124
    Published: October 01, 1971
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this study was to make clear experimentally the effectiveness and the limitations of programmed learning applied to the fields of motor-skill learning. This study was concerned with especially the learning process of belly-loll in running high jump. The groups were consisted of experimental group (programmed learning group) and control group (simultaneous learning group). The results were as follows: In general, the control group taught by simultaneous learning method performed more effectively as regards skills and forms of belly-roll. On the other hand, experimental group based on programmed learning method showed a tendency to lack accuracy in skill and form. But it seemed to us that the latter had learned more vividly than the former.
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  • Type: Article
    1971 Volume 16 Issue 2 Pages 125-127
    Published: October 01, 1971
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Appendix
    1971 Volume 16 Issue 2 Pages App3-
    Published: October 01, 1971
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Appendix
    1971 Volume 16 Issue 2 Pages App4-
    Published: October 01, 1971
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (16K)
  • Type: Cover
    1971 Volume 16 Issue 2 Pages Cover7-
    Published: October 01, 1971
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (34K)
  • Type: Cover
    1971 Volume 16 Issue 2 Pages Cover8-
    Published: October 01, 1971
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (34K)
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