Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 26 , Issue 2
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1981 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages Cover5-
    Published: September 01, 1981
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1981 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages Cover6-
    Published: September 01, 1981
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (105K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1981 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages App3-
    Published: September 01, 1981
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Tamotsu Nishida, Kimihiro Inomata
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 101-110
    Published: September 01, 1981
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Some studies which attempted to predict sport behaviors from the standpoint of achievement motivation have been reported. The common purpose of these studies was to clarify the effect of general achievement motives on sport behaviors. In consideration of sport situations, however, certain situational variables which involve such situations seem to be important factors in predicting sport behaviors. In the present study, Achievement Motives Test in Sports (AMTS) which was constructed on the basis of previous researches of achievement motives, involving situational variables in sport situations, was used. The purpose of the study was to examine the factor structure of the achievement motives in sports. Furthermore, characteristics of the achievement motives factors extracted from AMTS were analyzed in comparing with factor scores among three different athletic levels. AMTS which consists of 54 items was administered to 325 college athletes. Principal factor solution with normal varimax rotation was applied to the correlation matrix and then the factor scores were compared among the three different athletic levels. The following major results were found out: 1. Seven factors out of the 8, extracted from the factor analysis for AMTS, were reasonably interpreted as follows ; Unique Accomplishment, Mental Toughness, Overcoming Obstacles, Instrumental Activity, Endurance, Desire to Achieve Success, and Desire to Develop Motor Skills. Concerning achievement motives, it appears that these factors might provide an useful information to predict athletes' behaviors in sport situations. 2. The athlete group of the highest rank showed significantly higher factor scores on Unique Accomplishment and Mental Toughness than the other two groups of the second and the third rank athletes. Judging from the results, it would appear that these two factors, Unique Accomplishment and Mental Toughness, are critical to distinguish the athletes of the highest level from those on lower levels.
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  • Kohmei Ikuta, Tetsuro Negi, Takashi Kurihara, Sadayoshi Harimoto
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 111-117
    Published: September 01, 1981
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Sprint ability in terms of agility, force, and power was studied in thirty non-athlete male university students by measuring height, weight, 50 mater dash, stepping in chair, leg extension force, vertical jump, and maximum anaerobic power. The relationship between performances of 50 meter dash and ergometric powers was also examined by comparing six non-athletes and nine sprinters in their performances of 50 meter dash and the powers they put out in Monark's bicycle ergometer under eight work loads from light to heavy. The results were as follow : (1) High significant correlations were found between the performances of 50 meter dash and vertical jump (r =-0.783) and between 50 meter dash and maximum anaerobic poweres (r =-0.736). (2) Moderately high yet highly significant correlation was found between the performances of 50 meter dash and leg extension force (r=-0.574, p<0.001 for n=30). (3) Low but still significant correlation was found between the performances of 50 meter dash and stepping in chair test (r=-0.389, p<0.05 for n=30). (4) The performance of 50 meter dash correlated with height (r= -0.505, p<0.01 for n=30) and with weight (r=-0.437, p<0.05 for n=30). (5) The coefficient of correlation bretween the performance of 50 meter dash and the powers put out in bicycle ergometer became higher as the work load became heavier. The sprint ability is closely related with the ergometric power exerted under the near maximum anaerobic power. From the foregoing, it was speculated that the sprint ability is very much under the influence of ability to produce power at the work load of maximum anaerobic power which correspond to approximately 60 percent of maximum force.
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  • Hirohisa Wakita, Kenji Nagai, Norio Yagi, Kyonosuke Yabe
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 119-128
    Published: September 01, 1981
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    It has been observed that the premotion silent period (p. s. p) appears just before a rapid voluntary movement. This phenomenon is believed to be caused by one of the inhibitory discharges from the central nervous system. In the present study the effect of premotion silent period on reactive movement was investigated by comparing the conditions of "p. s. p. present" and "p. s. p. absent." Total of twenty seven healthy males aged 18-23 years were subjected to a series of experiment in which they were asked to exert their muscle strength for two to five seconds at the strength of 15 to 20% of their maximum elbow extension strength. Then they were requested to extend their elbow joint responding to a flashing lamp as quickly as possible. The EMG activities of triceps brachii and biceps brachii were recorded by bipolar surface electrodes. The two conditions of "p. s. p. present" and "p. s. p. absent" were identified from the EMG recordings. The force curve of elbow extension was simultaneously recorded using a resistance strain gauge transducer, and the mechanogram was analyzed on the following items: A) The time from the signal to the onset of force curve (premotor time) B) The time from the onset to the peak of force curve (motor time) C) The time from the signal to the peak of force curve (reaction time) D) The rate of tension rise (peak force strength/motor time, as expressed in kg/sec) The following results were obtained: 1) The mean values of the premotor time were 212 msec in "p. s. p. present" and 195 msec in "p. s. p. absent." (P<0.01) 2) The mean values of the motor time were 89msec in " p. s. p. present " and 93msec in "p. s. p. absent." (P<0.01) 3) The mean values of the reaction time were 302 msec in "p. s. p. present" and 288 msec in "p. s. p. absent." (P<0.01) 4) The mean values of the rate of tension rise were 126kg/sec in "p. s. p. present" and 115 kg/sec in "p. s. p. absent." (P<0.01) It was suggested from these results that the presence of the p. s. p. is related to the shorter motor time, greater rate of tension rise, and prolongated premotor and reaction time, in comparison with the condition in which the p. s. p. is absent.
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  • Tatsuya Kasai
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 129-135
    Published: September 01, 1981
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Postural changes and the difference of attitudes influence the reaction time of a limb muscle. The present study is a modification and extension of previous studies on influense of the position changes in the hip joint on the electromyographic reaction time (EMG-RT) and on the H-reflex of the soleus muscle in normal human subjects. Primarily, the aim of this study was to explore the relevant neurophysiological mechanism which control reaction time. In experiment I (Exp. I), the EMG-RT from the 20 subjects (16 males and 4 females) who reacted the plantar flexion at peep sound (1000 Hz, 100 db, 100 msec duration) were recorded from the soleus muscle at three different positions of the hip joint (neutral, externally and internally rotated positions). In experiment II (Exp. II), H-reflexes were elicited in the soleus muscle at the static three hip joint positions. In this case, H-reflexes were recorded under two conditions; one where the subjects' hip joint position was changed passively by the experimentor (20 subjects) and the other where the subjects voluntarily changed their hip joint position (10 subjects). In this way, obtained H-reflexes were measured from peak to peak. Those amplitudes of H-reflex were examined as an indicator of activation of alpha-motoneurons pool. Major results may be summarized as following: 1. The EMG-RT of internally rotated position was longer than that of neutral position, and the EMG-RT of externally rotated position was shorter than that of neutral position (Exp. I). 2. In both conditions, the H-reflex amplitudes of internally rotated position were smaller than those of neutral position, and the H-reflex amplitudes of externally rotated position were larger than those of neutral position (Exp. II). 3. Especially, this tendency was remarkable when the subjects voluntarily changed their hip joint position (Exp. II). From these results, the relevant neurophysiological mechanisms which control reaction time were discussed, and the scheme for an explanation of the relationship between the changes of reaction time and the excitabilities of alpha-motoneurons pool was suggested.
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  • Katsuo Fujiwara, Haruo Ikegami
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 137-147
    Published: September 01, 1981
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    It was the purpose of this study to show the relationship between the position of the center of foot pressure (CFP) and the steadiness of standing posture. The trace of the motion of CFP for 20 seconds, while the subject stood on a force plate with the eyes opened and the stance closed, was recorded on chart sheet and its length (L) was calculated electrically. The steadiness was evaluated quantitativelly by the L value. The position of CFP was shown by the ratio from heel regarding foot length as 100%. Twenty atheletes of both sexes, aged from 18 to 24 years, were induced to maintain quiet sianding posture (QSP) repeatedly. The mean values of the range of the position of CFP in QSP were 42.34% to 54.19% in male and 36.61% to 51.80% in female. The L values at any positions in QSP were approximatelly identical. Nine untrained females (U group), five female gymnasts (G group) and five female volleyballers (V group), aged from 19 to 24 years, maintained QSP five times and followed by forward or backward leaning postures with CFP at a given position in foot sole. In QSP no differences in the L value were observed between the three groups. L value was maintained within same constant level in certein limited area (stable area) in foot sole, and beyond which area the steadiness lowered. The stable area of G group and T group were significantly larger than that of U group. In forward and backward leaning postures beyond the stable area the steadinesses of G and V groups were significantly higher than that of U group.
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  • Kunio Hayashi, Kenji Horiyama, Kouji Yamamoto
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 149-160
    Published: September 01, 1981
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the changes in the angles of elbow joint and the forces exerted while handling 'shina-i' (fencing stave used in 'kendo') clutdhed in both hands during performing 'ohji-waza' (defence-plus-counterattack technique) of 'kendo' (Japanese fencing). Each finger force was recorded with a kind of finger grip dynamometer attached to the handle of 'shina-i'. The techniques investigated were 'men-kaeshi-do' (technique of receiving opponent's stroke against face guard, deflecting it with the reflexive power of the 'shina-i' and blowing the opponent's trunk), 'men-suriage-men' (technique of warding off opponet's 'shina-i' blowed on the mask with sliding, upward movement and then delivering stroke against opponent's mask by taking advantage of his unbalanced posture) and 'do-uchio-toshi-men' (technique of striking opponent's 'shina-i' blown on the trunk downward and then delivering stroke against opponent's mask). The subjects held 'itto-issoku-no-ma-a-i' (the distance of about 2m for a stroke at a step forward) and then they defended and counterattacked. Five grade holders as subjects participated in this experiment. The following results were obtained. 1. The forces exerted on the handle of 'shina-i' by left hand fingers were greater than those by right in each technique. 2. Comparing the forces by left hand fingers with those exerted at maximam grip effort, the forces of little and ring fingers amounted to more than 100% in each technique. They were ranging 104-146% in 'men-kaeshi-do', 105-190% in 'men-suriage-men' and 103-177% in 'men-uchiotoshi-men' just before the blow. 3. When the 'shina-i' moved upward, the forces were exerted especially by all right fingers and left index finger. When the 'shina-i' moved downward, the forces were exerted especially by left little, ring and middle fingers. 4. Each subject showed almost the same force curve.
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  • Shuichi Komiya, Toshie Komuro, Akira Tateda
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 161-167
    Published: September 01, 1981
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Deuterium oxide (D_2O) has been recommended as one of the tracers of choice for the determination of total body water. The ideal tracer for total body water determination should be diffusible into all the fluid compartments of the body and reaching a stable uniform equilibrium within a short time. The tracer should not be selectively stored, secreted or metabolized and exchanged by the body in a manner similar to water. Deuterium oxide is nontoxic in tracer doses and its toxic effects in mammals have only been found with levels of deuteration of 20% or more. In studies of body composition, the measurement of total body water with the D_2O dilution procedure has been extensively employed for oral administration of the tracer and analysis of its concentration in urine samples. Some of the procedures for the determination of D_2O in body fluids include: falling-drop method, mass spectrometry, freezing point method, gas chromatography, and infrared spectrophotometry.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1981 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 168-170
    Published: September 01, 1981
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1981 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 171-175
    Published: September 01, 1981
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (367K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1981 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages App4-
    Published: September 01, 1981
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Download PDF (35K)
  • Type: Cover
    1981 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages Cover7-
    Published: September 01, 1981
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (74K)
  • Type: Cover
    1981 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages Cover8-
    Published: September 01, 1981
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (74K)
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