Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 30 , Issue 4
Showing 1-14 articles out of 14 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1986 Volume 30 Issue 4 Pages Cover13-
    Published: March 01, 1986
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1986 Volume 30 Issue 4 Pages Cover14-
    Published: March 01, 1986
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (30K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1986 Volume 30 Issue 4 Pages App8-
    Published: March 01, 1986
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Seijiro Tsutsui, Takashi Sugihara
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 30 Issue 4 Pages 263-271
    Published: March 01, 1986
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to re-examine the effects of the practice variability in motor learning. The practice variability effects were analysed also with reference to two viewpoints: one is whether test target is contained in practice or not, the other id the test-task difficulty. Subjects were 120 ten years old elementary school children. The task administered was to hit the tennis ball rolled from about three meter away with a field hockey stick aiming at the targets which were placed five meter away from hitting point. The targets were set at the angles of ten to ninety degrees from the ball rolling direction. Numbers of learning trials were eighty, and two test blocks consisted of twenty trials each. Subjects were devided into four groups according to learning condition: 1) one-target (test target) group 2) one-target (non-test target) group 3) four-target (test target contained) group 4) four-target (non-test target) group The results were as follows: 1. Four variability groups were superior to one target groups. Especially, in the case of easier task, this tendency was more evident. 2. Test target practice groups seemed to get higher score than non-experience groups . But there were no significant differences between them. 3. When two variability groups were compared, there was no difference between test target contained group and test target uncontained group. These results support the schema theory. But, about the formation of motor response schema, this study could not make clear the role of test target practice.
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  • Koichi Hirota, Terufumi Sakamoto, Nobuko Takei, Tokuhiko Higashi
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 30 Issue 4 Pages 273-279
    Published: March 01, 1986
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Male Wistar rats, 5-6 weeks of age and about 150g of body weight, were trained for 3, 6 or l0weeks according to a treadmill running program: 15 m/min, 1,000 m/day and 6 days/week. Compared with sedentary control rats, the trained rats gave following results:1. Remarkable decrease in body weight, 2. Significantly lower level of serum cholesterol, 3. Relative increase in lipids loaded on a-lipoproteins , and 4. Distinct enhancement of the incorporation of <14>^C-acetate into liver cholesterol when assayed with slices. These manifestations became more and more obvious as the training continued for longer periods, and the differences between the trained and the sedentary rats were statistically significant after 10-week exercise. The present evidence has provided an additional support to our hypothesis that the physical exercise promotes the turnover of cholesterol in tissues.
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  • Masaaki Kagawa, Naoki Yonekawa, Yoshinori Okazawa, Motonobu Ishii
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 30 Issue 4 Pages 281-292
    Published: March 01, 1986
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purposes of this investigation were to develop an inventory designed to quantify the behavioral norms in sports games, and to evaluate the reliability of these scale forms. In order to achieve the purposes, two preliminary surveys and the final main survey were con-ducted to the boys and girls in several grades. (i.e. the fourth, fifth, and sixth grades of the elementary school, the first, second and third grades of the junior high school, the first and second grades of the high school and university). In the second preliminary survey, the questionaires consisting of l05 items were used. The items were prepared classifying the various opinions offered by these boys and girls in the first preliminary survey. For categorizing the items, a principal factor solution method with normal varimax rotation was applied to "105×105 correlation matrix" which was calculated from the all subjects. And the 49 items in all were selected from each category by the weight of factor loading. In the final survey, the questionaires consisting of 49 items were conducted to the 3293 boys and girls other than those for in the two preliminary surveys. After the good-poor analysis, the 29 items were selected for the final scale forms. The reliability of this scale forms were tested by the index of consistency and the correlation coefficient in test-retest, and credible results were obtained.
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  • Takako Amino, Mitsuo Kondo
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 30 Issue 4 Pages 293-301
    Published: March 01, 1986
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Luria, A. reported that one of the functions of verbal behavior is the control of motor behavior, and that this function is prominent in early childhood. The purpose of this study was to c1arify the relationship between self-verbalization and the contro1of motor behavior in 25, 5-year-old impulsive children (as assessed by Kagan's Matching Familiar test), with an additiona1 26 reflective children used as a control group. In order to assess the effects of self-verbalization on motor behavior, children were tested jumping from hoop to hoop in 3 patterns. First, the instructor gave a series of instructions and the children were asked to behave accordingly. Next, giving the same instructions, the children were asked to repeat the instructions before jumping to the next hoop. The children were t6sted for speed and accuracy during their movement through each pattern. The working hypothesis -that self-verbalization is effective in increasing accuracy in impu1sive children-was supported. The results indicate that impulsive children respond to the semantic aspects of their self-verbalization. This supports the conclusion made in a report by Meacham, J.A: that "Self-verbalization makes the goals of motor behavior clearer and more precise". Though response time and number of errors were specifically examined in this study, several other characteristic behaviors of impulsive children through self-verbalization were observed (i.e.Impu1sive children often jumped in a random pattern, thus increasing the time of the test while reflective children consistently jumped in a logical order).
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  • Kiyonori Kawahatsu, Minoru Itou, Yukari Saida, Hiroshi Hamazaki, Koich ...
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 30 Issue 4 Pages 303-315
    Published: March 01, 1986
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Although the importance of the exercise prescription for ischemic heart disease has been recognized for a long time, ischemic heart disease patients were often located in reduced physical activities due to the fear that physical training could result in further deterioration in cardiac function. Swimming in particular was rarely allowed for those patients, despite the valuable advantages as an overall physical conditioning and leisure time activity. In this study, the swimming program invo1ving water gymnastics was added as a complement to an already established active, supervised conditioning program, which consisted of a 90min. exercise period held 3 times per week including a variety of exercises: walking, jog-walk, calisthenics, gymnastics, modified volleyball, badminton, table tennis, mini-tennis, etc. Twenty male patients aged 44 to 70, recovering from myocardial infarction or suffering from angina, were engaged in the swimming program. All patients in the treadmill or bicycle-ergometer tests performed before participation in the swimming program showed over 100 watts in their exercise capacity. Although a medical examination was required for participation, our attention was also given to physiological and clinical profiles of individuals, and swimming was usually prescribed on a mass basis, because group programs provide excellent opportunities for motivation, Which has often been neglected in such therapy. Main1y, the breast and back strokes, which require no restrictions in respiration, were a part of the endurance oriented training; i.e., a low resistance and high repetition program. ECG-telemetory was performed during all water activities and the recovery phase. Swimming was to be stopped at the symptom-limited point, as defined by fatigue or clinical symptoms or electrocardiographic abnormalities, but no one was stopped by the examiner even in the 100m breast stroke. Thus, no adverse cardiovascular cases occurred during the swimming session as well as in the regular training program. Detailed evaluation of clinical data obtained during this program revealed that patients were able to perform water gymnastics and swimming safely, i.e., with a modest heart rate in the range of 90-120 beats per min, and modest blood pressure of l00-160mmHg. All of the patients claimed that they felt better refreshed after the swimming. Although the study is considered to be still in the experimental stage, this study would provide a support for the proposal that swimming can be used safely in the treatment of selected patients with coronary heart disease, and is especially valuable for well-motivated cardiac rehabilitation patients in a program which needs months to years to maintain at a required level of exercise.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1986 Volume 30 Issue 4 Pages 317-354
    Published: March 01, 1986
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1986 Volume 30 Issue 4 Pages 355-361
    Published: March 01, 1986
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Index
    1986 Volume 30 Issue 4 Pages Toc1-
    Published: March 01, 1986
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1986 Volume 30 Issue 4 Pages App9-
    Published: March 01, 1986
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (34K)
  • Type: Cover
    1986 Volume 30 Issue 4 Pages Cover15-
    Published: March 01, 1986
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (43K)
  • Type: Cover
    1986 Volume 30 Issue 4 Pages Cover16-
    Published: March 01, 1986
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (43K)
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