A number of researchers emphasize the importance of customer satisfaction (CS) in fitness clubs. They support the expectancy disconfirmation paradigm, which holds satisfaction occurs when perceived performance fills or exceeds pre-purchase expectations. This proposition, however, has not been assessed empirically. The authors hypothesize, from theoretical bases, that the perceived performance would be a more appropriate scale for the assessment CS in fitness clubs in comparison with other scales. The purpose of this study was to identity the more appropriate scale to describe CS in fitness clubs by making a comparison between the perceived performance scale and the expectancy disconfirmation scale. Five hundred and forty-nine participants from 6 for-profit fitness clubs in Tokai district responded to the survey. Their data were analyzed by applying factor analysis and multiple regression analysis. The main results were as follows: 1) There were some differences between factor constructs of the expectations and the performance. This suggests the possibility that customers might not be satisfied even if their pre-purchase expectations are filled as expected. 2) Although the levels of performance were lower than the levels of expectations in many benefit dimensions, overall satisfaction was comparatively high. This indicates customers were satisfied even if their pre-purchase expectations were not filled. 3) Both perceived performance and disconfirmation (difference between expected performance and perceived performance) exerted significant influence on satisfaction. However, the former had much higher explanation validity. Due to the specific consumption style (purchase of one year membership), the expectation itself may change during that period. This would reduce the explanation validity of disconfirmation. These results suggest that perceived performance is the more appropriate scale for the assesment of CS in fitness clubs in comparison with the disconfirmation scale.
Rebound drop jump index [RDJ_<index>=(1/8・g・RDJt_a^2)/RDJt_c] was developed to evaluate the ability to perform the ballistic stretch. shortening cycle (SSC) movement. The RDJ_<index> consists of ability to jump higher (RDJt_a) and that to shorten the contact time (RDJt_c) in rebound drop jump (RDJ), a typical SSC movement. The former is affected by leg strength and counter movement jump ability but the factors affecting the latter case have not yet been well established. This study examined the factors to shorten the contact time with special reference to two important views, i.e. work done by the lower limb joints and anticipation of the landing. 1. Relationships between work done by the lower limb joints and RDJ_<index>, RDJt_c, and RDJt_a in RDJ from height of 0.3m were examined in ten college male athletes. There was a significant correlation between the ratio of negative work at the ankle to total work done by the lower limb joints and RDJ_<index> (r=0.726, p<0.05), and RDJt_c (r=-0.823, p<0.01) but not RDJt_a (r=0.226,ns). Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between the ratio of negative work at the ankle and maximum plantar flexion strength (r=-0.329,ns). These results suggested that the rate of energy absorption at the ankle joint in former contact phase was one important factor to shorten the contact time in RDJ but not affected by plantar flexion strength. 2. RDJ_<index>, RDJt_c and RDJt_a in two RDJs with or without visual information to inhibit temporal and spatial anticipation of landing were compared in six college male athletes. As compared without and with visual information, RDJt_c was longer, RDJt_a was shorter and RDJ_<index> was lower, significantly. These changes were greater in subjects showing the higher RDJ_<index> than those showing the lower RDJ_<index>. Furthermore, changes of RDJ_<index>, RDJt_c and RDJt_a in series of nine RDJs without visual information at thirty seconds of rest intervals were compared between subject A showing high RDJ_<index> and subject B showing low RDJ_<index>. RDJt_c decreased and RDJt_a increased slightly, and RDJ_<index> increased by repeated trials even without visual information in subject A but not in subject B. These results suggested that temporal and spatial anticipation of the landing were another important factors to shorten the contact time in RDJ. These finding seemed to be beneficial for establishing strength and power training methods for jumper and ballgame players who are required ballistic stretch-shortening cycle movement.