Adoption and implementation of educational innovation has often been made through model schools selected for research. The process of organizational reaction to innovation depends on the situation at individual schools. To describe and explain the individual differences, it is necessary to understand their perspective and intentions. The purpose of this study was to find factors which help promote innovation in school physical education in a process of dynamic responses through management organization. A comparison of paired cases was employed. By this method, one set of elementary schools, which were assigned by the government as research models for physical education, were selected. Differences in the process of organizational reaction were then compared for each school's history. The main results were as follows: 1. Self-confidence arising from a good result and building of members' independence directly contributed to continuance of research on physical education. Furthermore, the level of "community knowledge" contributed to these factors. School R tended to share innovation, whereas school Y shared only explicit knowledge. 2. The mechanism of conflict resolution influenced the community level of semantic knowledge. Exhaustive discussions among members and an adviser on innovation were held in an attempt to adopt innovation. In addition, the belief and motivation for school research shown by the headmaster of school R greatly influenced the building of a nationwide information network. 3. How initiative leaders deal with school physical education research was a dominant factor in promoting "community knowledge". School R made structural innovations because of its understanding that the assigned research was for school education. School Y was only partially able to improve due to limited thinking in the development of physical fitness. 4. There were qualitative differences in obtaining and using human resources between the two schools. School R had a flat structure that considered human relations and had the will to carry out school research. However, school Y emphasized specialized physical education that made teachers depend upon each other. These differences were caused by the management creed of each school headmaster.
A study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of sprint motion in top-ranking elementary school sprinters. The subjects were 10 first-class elementary school sprinters (sprinter group), and 31 standard elementary school children (control group), all aged 12 years. Measurements were performed for sprint speed, step frequency, step length, and sprint motion in terms of angular kinematics for both groups. In addition, the isokinetic peak torques at 60 and 180 deg/s were analyzed. The results obtained were as follows: The mean values of body height and mass were larger for the sprinter group than for the control group. Isokinetic peak torques during knee extension and flexion (angular velocity; 60, 180deg/s) were greater for the sprinter group than for the control group. The sprint speed, step length, and step frequency of the sprinter group were significantly greater than those of the control group. On the other hand, the support time of the sprinter group was significantly shorter than that of the control group. The relationship between sprint speed and sprint motion in the sprinter group was as follows: The maximal thigh lift angle (θT) showed a negative correlation (r = - 0.369) with sprint speed, and the ankle joint angle at the moment of foot contact (θA-on; r = - 0.619) and the minimal angle of the ankle joint during the foot contact phase (θA-min; r = - 0.372) showed a negative correlation with sprint speed. However, the maximal extension velocity of the ankle joint (ωA) showed a positive correlation (r = 0.326) with sprint speed. Although sprint motion in the sprinter group showed specific features, the correlation between sprint speed and sprint motion was not significant in either group. In particular, positively and negativity were contrary in the relation between θA-on, θA-min and ωA and sprint speed in the sprinter group, compared with the correlations in adult sprinters. The relationship between sprint speed and sprint motion showed that sprint motion in the sprinter group was not always similar to that in adult sprinters.
Vertical component of ground reaction force (GRF) in rhythmical hopping motions of seven male subjects was recorded to analyze the stiffness of mm. triceps surae based on a simple mass-spring model. Hopping motions were performed only with plantar flexion, with knee and hip joints kept as straight as possible. Human body was modeled by a simple model, which was composed of a mass and a linear spring, which corresponded to human. Averaged difference between recorded GRF and theoretically predicted GRF based on the model ranged from 10 to 14% of the peak value of GRF, which was regarded as small. From the length of the phase in which GRF was larger than the body weight, value of the spring constant was estimated based on the simple model. The value ranged from 2.4 × 10^4 to 10.4 × 10^4 N/m, varying with the change of the hopping frequency. The reproducibility of the estimated stiffness, which was measured in different days, was quite high (CV ranged from 2.2 to 4.4%). Furthermore, predicted jump height, which was calculated from estimated spring constant, matched well to actually measured jump height. These facts supported the validity of the simple mass-spring system model.
This paper reviews some of the previous research on the attitude of PE teacher's toward inclusion of disabled children into regular PE classes. When inclusion classes are planned without the necessary consideration and support for disabled children, they tend to become a negative experience for both children with and without disabilities. However, many studies have revealed that disabled children can be included in regular PE classes without a negative influence on non-disabled children if proper support is provided in the form of equipment, volunteers, and PE specialists. Although most PE teachers have been reluctant to implement the inclusion policy, their attitude becomes favorable once they have experienced it. Attitude varies according to the type of disability. It is necessary for teachers to have interest, knowledge and skills to plan and implement appropriate strategies in classes. However, very little is known about teacher training systems for inclusion classwork. More research needs to be conducted to develop successful inclusion classes. A tentative system for teacher training in inclusion classes is proposed.