Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 50 , Issue 2
Showing 1-25 articles out of 25 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages Cover5-
    Published: March 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages Cover6-
    Published: March 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages App10-
    Published: March 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages App11-
    Published: March 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages App12-
    Published: March 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Yasuko Endo
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages 163-174
    Published: March 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    This paper examines the state of research on dance in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania. Dance is an essential part of daily life for people in Africa. African dance is one of the original forms of dance, and together with music, has often been used in place of written forms of language as a means of communication. The rhythms and movements of African dance have had a major influence on developments in dance and music worldwide. The fundamental nature of African dance is what has led me to focus my research in this area, in order to trace the roots of modern forms of Western dance. Ethiopia : Scientific research into Ethiopian dance began in 1964 when two Hungarian folklorists sent by the Hungarian Government traveled throughout Ethiopia collecting data on folk dances and folk music. Gyorgy Martin and Balint Sarosi studied different Ethiopian dances by comparing them with other dances. Tibor Vadasy continued their work by carrying out comparative studies on the dances of different tribes and peoples in regions such as Gojjam, Gondar, and Gurage. Furthermore, one of the primary reasons for building the National Theatre, formally known as the Haile Selassie I Theatre and completed in 1955 based on 18^<th> century French theatre designs, was the preservation and promotion of Ethiopian folk dance and folk music. Kenya : T.O. Ranger's book, "Dance and Society in Eastern Africa 1890-1970 : The Beni Ngoma", is an excellent example of the use of aspects of dance history to grasp the reality of the colonial experiences of a particular region. Ranger covers nearly 100 years of East African history, using data concerning the origin, development, and diffusion of popular dance culture in urban and rural Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, and Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). Another book, "Folk Music of Kenya" by George Senoga-Zake, has introduced Kenyan music and dance to a wide audience. The national dance troupe, Bomas of Kenya, was originally established by the government in 1971 for the cultural entertainment of tourists visiting Kenya. Through Bomas, different aspects of Kenyan culture are displayed, including lifestyles, crafts, music, and dancing. The Bomas Harambee Dancers are the only resident dance company in Kenya and perform daily in a spectacular circular theatre. Tanzania : According to Herbert F. Makoye (1998 : 95-97), serious research on dance in Tanzania started in 1964 following the establishment of the National Dance Troupe under the auspices of the Ministry of National Culture and Youth. The National Dance Troupe was disbanded in 1980, after which the Bagamoyo College of Arts was established in 1981, with dance as a central focus of the college's training program. Another institution to have embarked on dance research is the University of Dar Es Salaam. The first comprehensive research on Tanzanian dance was a 1972 M.A. thesis by Godwin Zilaoneka Kaduma entitled, "The Description of Five Tanzanian Dances". In Japan, from the 1970s onwards, researchers of music and dance, such as Kenichi Tsukada and Yasuko Endo, began to focus on the meaning of dance and music in Africa.
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  • Hanae Takahashi
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages 175-188
    Published: March 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    This paper examines : (1) the profile of Okada Torajiro (the "Founder") (2) the first appearance and development of the Okada Method, (3) the evolution and spread of the Okada Method and (4) the relationship between breathing and sitting and the further evolution of the technique. During the Meiji era, the three major schools of exercise were : (1) the Okada breathing/sitting method (the "Okada Method"), (2) the Futaki breathing method and 3) the Fujita breath-mind harmonizing method. Such exercise methods were better suited to the Japanese lifestyle, which, unlike Western exercises focused more upon breathing and meditation, than physical stamina and strength. Unfortunately, due to the fact that these exercises were taught entirely outside of the education system, no record of formal research exists. In fact, the Founder never wrote a manual on the method that bears his name. As a result, some aspects of the Okada Method cannot be specifically attributed to the Founder, and consequently one must examine the method using related resources. The Okada Method, constructed from related writings is divided into breathing and sitting methods. The sitting method is the primary exercise, which is then combined with the breathing method, completing the exercise. The breathing method, also called "reverse breathing" or "chest-type breathing" involves filling the chest on inhalation and pushing out the abdomen on exhalation, rather than the more common contraction of the abdomen, hence the term "reverse breathing". A further complication of the fact that no definitive work is attributable to the author of the Okada Method is that variations of the method exist. For example, hand and leg positioning in the sitting method vary according to the author of the text. The differences, however, subtle and are cause for little concern, as the essence of the breathing and sitting method are uniform.
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  • Kazufumi Takahashi, Takashi Kurokawa, Sachio Usui
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages 189-200
    Published: March 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    This study examined the usefulness of two indices that indicate changes in velocity during a 100m sprint. The subjects were 18 highly trained college male sprinters (100m sprint best time 11.29±0.36s). The first index indicates the Amount of Deviation of subject's running Velocity (ADV) from Furusawa's theoretical velocity, defined by the following equation. ADV=∫^<t_1>_<t_0>{v^*(t)-v(t)}dt The second index is "%ADV", and is defined by the following equation. %ADV=(∫^<t_<100>>_<t(v_<max>)>{v^*(t)-v(t)}dt)/(∫^<t_<100>>_<t(v_<max>)>{v^*(t)}dt)×100 Where v^* is Furusawa's theoretical velocity, v is the actual running velocity, t is time from the start, t_0 is the section start time, t_1 is the section end time, t(v_<max>) is the time at top speed, and t_<100> is the 100m running time. The following results were obtained. (1) "ADV" in each 5-m section was able to analyze more clearly the changes in running velocity than "percentage decrease of velocity". (2) Multiple regression analysis suggested that "%ADV" is an index by which velocity decrement can be analyzed with higher accuracy than with "percentage decrease of velocity".
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  • Kazuki Miyatsuji, Satoru Tanabe, Masahiro Kaneko
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages 201-206
    Published: March 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    To prevent biological deconditioning during missions in Spacelab, astronauts are required to exercise and typically use a bicycle ergometer, treadmill, or other equipment for resistance exercise. However, some exercise equipment, a treadmill in particular, may cause serious vibratory disturbance in the spacecraft. In the present study, we attempted to estimate the energy expenditure of a freely performed whole-body exercise in the atmosphere of a spacecraft, that was demonstrated by a Japanese astronaut in 1992. The exercise consisted of a repeated gymnastic-like motion with whole-body flexion and extension. The mechanical work performed internally against the inertial load by the body segments during exercise was calculated, and the energy cost was estimated after assuming the efficiency to be 25%. Our results showed that the energy cost was 0.11 kcal/kg of body mass/min, which equivalent to the energy expended during a fast walk. We concluded that this exercise could be recommended as one of the exercise programs because of its safety, since it does not involve shifting the COM of the body and requires no equipment, thus negating the problem of vibration.
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages App13-
    Published: March 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Toshio Saeki
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages 207-217
    Published: March 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Takashi Sugihara
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages 219-227
    Published: March 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Hideo Yamazaki
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages 229-234
    Published: March 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Tsuneo Sogawa
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages 235-241
    Published: March 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages 242-
    Published: March 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages 243-
    Published: March 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages 245-
    Published: March 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages 247-
    Published: March 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages App14-
    Published: March 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Download PDF (85K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages App15-
    Published: March 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Download PDF (85K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages App16-
    Published: March 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages App17-
    Published: March 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages App18-
    Published: March 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages Cover7-
    Published: March 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Download PDF (428K)
  • Type: Cover
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages Cover8-
    Published: March 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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