Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 14 , Issue 1
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1969 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages Cover1-
    Published: September 30, 1969
    Released: December 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Soukiti Yoshizawa, Shigeru Yoshida
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 1-8
    Published: September 30, 1969
    Released: December 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Along with the rapid advancement in natural sciences, physical education research in Japan is increasing both in quality and quantity. Physical Education is, in its real character, a unique learning that includes many aspects such as natural science, humanity, social science and art. So we believe it to be necessary, not only to grasp the present situation, but also to pursue the idea in the future, to know how these four areas of stu dy are regarded as important and how they are studied. We have attempted here to analyze the tendencies in Japan, East Germany and America through the comparison of academic publications in our special field. The results attained within our limited materials are as follows: 1) In the area of HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY (HUMANITY), the aim of which seems to pursue values and objectives, America shows least interest among the three countries. And this tendency is getting conspicuous year after year. 2) Each country has been researching PHYSICAL EDUCATION SCIENCES at considerably high level. The rate of this area to all research articles was over 25% in Japan. This was the highest percentage compared with other countries. 3) In America the rate of TEST AND MEASUREMENT to all research articles was more than 40%; this percentage is getting to go higher. Above-mentioned tendency seems to come from a great influential effect of the rapid advancement in natural sciences in 20th century. We do not think this is a favorable tendency. At all therefore, we came to believe firmly that we ought to research in HUMANITY more than in other areas.
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  • M. Miyamura, M. Shindo, M. Ikai
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 9-18
    Published: September 30, 1969
    Released: December 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The cardio-respiratory function was observed during treadmill exercise inhaling different partial pressure of oxygen. The inspired air contained 14% O_2 (Po_2 102 mmHg), 21% O_2 (Po_2 159 mmHg), and 60% O_2 (Po_2 448 mmHg). The air in the decompression chamber was Po_2 100 mmHg which was equivalent to about 3,700m altitude. The endurance running time to exhaustion on the treadmill, maximum oxygen intake, maximum cardiac output, and maximum pulmonary ventilation were measured on 9 male subjects from 23 to 29 years of age. They were submitted to the maximal exercise by a motor driven treadmill inhaling the four different contents of O_2 levels mentioned above. The oxygen intake was measured by Douglas bag method. The CO_2 rebreathing technique described by K. Klausen was used for determining cardiac output. The heart rate and the respiratory frequency during exercise were continuously recorded. The gas samples were analyzed by micro-Scholander's apparatus, The running time to exhaustion on a treadmill in nine subjects were 3 minutes 28 seconds, 5 minutes 43 seconds, 7 minutes 37 seconds, and 3 minutes 37 seconds in the average, when the subject inhaled the oxygen of 14%, 21%, 60%, and the air in the decompression chamber respectively. There was found a close relation between physical endurance time and maximum oxygen intake, whereas the maximal cardiac output was kept unchanged despite of changing inspired oxygen contents. No consistent changes in the lung diffusing capacity were observed from ordinary air to low O_2 inhalation during maximal exercise. The results suggested that decreased maximum oxygen intake at low O_2 inhalation was due to incomplete oxygenation of arterial blood due to the reduced Po_2 in the inspired air.
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  • Sadayoshi TAGUCHI
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 19-27
    Published: September 30, 1969
    Released: December 31, 2016
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    Training effect of muscular endurance has been studied with respect to muscle oxygen intake from blood flow and oxygen content in blood. Oxygen of blood was analyzed by Van Slyke apparatus. Blood flow of the forearm was measured by Whitneys' gauge. Ultrasonic apparatus was applied to know the amount of the muscle tissues. Five male subjects engaged in a training program once a day for l2 weeks. Training exercise was made by the rhythmic grip contractions (60 contractions/min.) against the weight of 1/3 of maximum strength. This exercise continued up to exhaustion on the hand-ergometer. The measurements were made 5 times through the training period; before training, 3rd, 6th, 9th week as well as at the end of training period. The number of contractions up to exhaustion increased remarkably from 82.2 to 267.4 at the end of training in the mean. Muscle oxygen intake and blood flow resulted in significant increase from 3.88 to 6.28 (ml./100ml. muscle/min.) (p<0.01), and from 32.27 to 49.54 (ml./100ml.forearm/min.) (p<0.05) respectively. It was found that improvement in muscular endurance was associated with increase of muscle oxygen intake. Furthermore, the increase in muscle oxygen intake was more closely related to the increase of blood flow than that of arteriovenous oxygen difference. Oxygen intake per unit mechanical work decreased markedly (from 0.91 to 0.56 ml./kgm), indicating improvement of the mechanical efficiency
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  • T. FUKUNAGA
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 28-32
    Published: September 30, 1969
    Released: December 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The strength per unit area of the muscle was calculated in 245 healthy human subjects, including 119 male and 126 female by means of the ultrasonic photography of the cross-section of the acting muscle bundle, together with the measurement of the muscle strength developed by the subject with maximum effort. The result was summarized as the following: 1). The ultrasonic method used in this work was possibly admitted as the best way to calculate the cross-sectional area of the muscle. 2). The arm strength was fairly proportional to the cross-sectional area of the flexor of the upper arm regardless of age and sex. 3). The strength per unit cross-sectional area of flexor of the upper arm was 6.3kg/cm^2 in the average, standard deviation of O.81kg/cm^2 at extended position. When cross-sectional area of muscle was measured at flexed position of the forearm the strength per unit area was calculated to be 4.7kg/cm^2. 4). As to the individual variation, the strength per unit area was distributed in a range from 4kg/cm^2 to 8kg/cm^2. 5). The strength per unit cross-sectional area was almost the same in male and female regardless of age.
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  • N. Niwa
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 33-38
    Published: September 30, 1969
    Released: December 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The aim of this research was to determine at what age the static training of elbow flexion showed the highest effect. A single daily contraction of 6-sec. duration with the tension of the maximum load to the right arm was continued for 12 weeks except Sundays. Subjects were tested in a sitting position as they exerted their maximum strength of the flexor keeping the forearm 90° against the upperarm. The following results were obtained: 1. A progressively increasing training effect was demonstrated as the age of subjects was advanced from junior high school to university. 2.The trained muscle strength was found to decrease with the training of once a week or of once two weeks.
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  • Hideji Matsui, Mitsumasa Miyashita, Mochiyoshi Miura, Tamotsu Hoshikaw ...
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 39-43
    Published: September 30, 1969
    Released: December 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    There are two main types of electrodes in the electromyographic study of muscle activity in the human. The one is the surface electrode and the other is the inserted electrode. Since each electrode has its characteristics, the surface electrode is generally applied to the study of physical education and kinesiology. On the other hand, EMG (especially recorded by the surface electrode) can deal only with the qualitative analysis of muscle activity. Therefore, several investigators have tried to record the electrical activity of muscle quantitatively. Namely the integrated electrical activity has been recorded. Lipold and his coworkers (1952) showed the mechanical integration with planimeter. Bigland and Lippold (1954) performed the integration with a modified Miller's circuit. In Japan, Ikai (1963), Abe (1963) and others have tried it. The purpose of this study is to make a more complicated integrating circuit and analyze the relation between the integrated EMG and the muscular tension. Fig.1 is a block diagram of the integrator. EMG is picked up on the skin by a pair of standard electrodes placed over the muscle in question. This is amplified, rectified and then led to the integrator. The output of the integrator is recorded on the pen writing oscillograph. Fig.2 shows the response of the integrator to an input of constant voltage. It is clear that the increasing wave form of output (integrator) is proportional to the magnitude of the input voltage such as 1mV, 2mV and 5mV. Using this integrator, the authors intended to secure that the relationship between the tension exerted by the muscle and integrated EMG was linear. In this study, the flexion of the elbow joint was picked up. Namely the relation between the weight held by wrist and the muscular activity in the biceps and the brachioradialis was observed. The subject was a healthy man (35 years old). He supported the various weights with his wrist at the right angle of the elbow joint in sitting position isometrically. The weight varied from 5kg to 30kg. The subject exerted his strength over 10 seconds at least adjusting the magnitude of the weight. In the past, some of the experiments appeared to show a quantitative relationship between the applied weight and the amplitude of the EMG tracing. In man and his coworkers (1952)obtained a parallelism in a biceps brachii of human contracting isometrically. In the same year, Lippold and his coworkers (1952) described that the electrical output as revealed by measuring EMG with planimeter closely parallels the tension when the gastrocnemius-soleus contracted isometrically. Bigland and Lippold (1954) reported that the relationship between electrical activity and isometric tension of the extensor muscles of the finger was linear. Basmajian and Latif (1957) electromyographically showed that the three muscles came into action such as the biceps brachii, the brachialis and brachioradialis. Inman and his coworkers (1952) reported only about the biceps in flexion of the elbow joint. In the case of the present study, EMG and its integration of the biceps and the brachioradialis were recorded by the surface electrodes. Fig.3 shows the recording of EMG and integrations according to the magnitude of the tension. Fig.4 is the diagram of the relationship between them. Total in the diagram is the sum of the electrical activity of the biceps and that of the brachioradialis. The relationship between the integrated electrical activity and the isometric tension is proportional. And the results of this study show the same inclination as Lippold and Bigland already reported in the gastrocnemius-soleus and the flexor of the finger.
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  • Souichi Ichimura
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 44-51
    Published: September 30, 1969
    Released: December 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Rohrer-Index is commonly used to measure the level of fatness and thinness of body with numerical expression, (<weight (g)>/<height (cm)>) X 100^2. In the present study the distribution of Rohrer-Index at each level of height is considered by conditional probability theory. Distribution function of Rohrer-Index (X/y^3=u)^* under Condition y is f(u|y)= ((1/(√<2π(σ_1/y^3)√<1-ρ^2>)e-1/(2σ_1^2(1-ρ^2)/y^6))(u-1/y^3(μ_1+(<ρσ_1>/σ_2)(y-μ_2)))^2(cf.Eq.(15)) The expectation of Rohrer-Index at each level of height is estimated to be E(u|y)= (1/y^3)(μ_1+(<ρσ_1>/σ_2)(y-μ_2)). (It is named COP function of Rohrer-Index). The standard deviation of Rohrer-Index at each level of height is (σ_1√<1-ρ^2>/y^3. Two examples of data analysis are illustrated. Among eight years old boys the expectation of Rohrer-Index is the higher, the lower the height of boys is, and the expectation is the lower, the higher the height is. Among eleven years old girls the expectation of Rohrer-Index is highest near the mean height, while the higher and the lower girls have the lower expectation of Rohrer-Index. This relationship is similar to inverted U curve.
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  • Yoshiro Hatano
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 52-58
    Published: September 30, 1969
    Released: December 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of the study was to review reports on the strength measurement of the upper extremities, published between 1900 and 1967 in Britain and the U.S.A., and to analyze the methods and results in these studies, in order to determine the strong and weak points of each method of strength measurements and to understand the various characteristics of the upper extremity strength. Methods of measurement used in seventy-eight reports collected included manual testing, spring-scale, dynamometer, strain gauge, cable-tensiometer and performance test. The strong and weak points of each of these methods were discussed.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1969 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages App1-
    Published: September 30, 1969
    Released: December 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Appendix
    1969 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages App2-
    Published: September 30, 1969
    Released: December 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1969 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages Misc1-
    Published: September 30, 1969
    Released: December 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Appendix
    1969 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages App3-
    Published: September 30, 1969
    Released: December 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Cover
    1969 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages Cover3-
    Published: September 30, 1969
    Released: December 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (29K)
  • Type: Cover
    1969 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages Cover4-
    Published: September 30, 1969
    Released: December 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (29K)
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