Osaka Middle School established the promotion of Gymnastics on 1881, built the Gymnasium and introduced the Gymnastics of "Taisodenshusho" (The Institute of Gymnastics). Especially, it had the most valuable means that the weight exersise and military drill in the high level was set up, and moreover this school and this system of Gymastics had influence upon the other middle schools at those periods.
In this article the genetic effects on the development of physique are considered. Our main purpose is to determine how genetic factor and environmental factors are interacting to produce human dovelopment. Unfortunately, we have few studies of this sort in our field, but many studies on heredity of mental ability can be seen in psychological field. The interactions of heredity and environment always exist and are understood conceptually, but such conceptual understandings are not so useful or practice of physical education. Thus we attacked this studies. The statistical tools have been used to make this study and many interesting results were found as follows ; 1. As the age advances, the genetic effect grows apparent in stature, but it decreases in weight ; 2. At the stage when boys and girls grow more rapidly, the hereditabiliity appears greater in stature but less in weight; 3. With realization ratio of heredity, heredity of stature tends to be realized about 80% at 15 of age in both sexes, but about 20% to 35% in weight; 4. According to the tetracholic correlation, these children who have greater-statured parents tend to become the greater-statured relatively. This is not sure in weight. The data used to compile this study were not exhaustive enough to make genela-rization of these results, but it is believed that this study produced many useful hypo- thetical theories, and we are going to continue to study these problems which have been raised here.
The Back-muscle strenght meters heretofore in use have sometimes failed to show exact value, because they are apt to be affected by the tester's grasping strength or arm-muscle strength. In order to gain absolute value of back-muscle strength in a more facilitate way, the author improved the measuring meter and has made a rope-type meter. The author measured the back-muscle strength of about 2,000 persons from the elementary schools, junior and senior highschools and the university round Akita City with the rope-type meter above stated and examined the datar together with the results of the person's physical examination in the light of physique medicine. The followings are the conclusive results obtained. 1) The relations of back-muscle strength measured both by the rope-type and the KYS-type with the data of physical examination or with other muscle power strength on university students are different from those of elementary school children, junior and senior highschool pupils. That is on man-students, no remarkable difference is observed between the measured results of the rope-type meter and those of the KYS-type meter, while on woman-students, the difference is observed. 2) The rope-tpye meter the author has devised is more helpful in the strength measurement of younger persons-young boys and children or schoolgirls-rather than in the measurement of older persons.
1. Recently, the mental work is greately needed in addition to the physical work for umpires with the progress of playing technique. It is supposed that the visual sense plays the big role for judgment. With flicker test on the sensitivity of the eyes, flicker value of umpires was measured before and after their work and the results were compared. The author has conducted the flicker test on many kinds of sports for grading the fatigue of each member. 2. In each experiment, with K.Y.S style flicker tester, the value of flicker fusion on the subject was measured ten or twenty minutes before the work as the control, and then was measured again within five minutes after the work. The critical fusion was measured on the subject while decreasing gradually the frequency of fusion from fifty cycle. 3. To summarise the result of this experiment, the grade of fatigue after umpires'work is different in each position-the more complicated, speedier and longer the job is, the intenser is the grade of fatigue. It is very important to make a adequate arrange-ment of work for good judgment of umpires, considering the skill, age, and physical fitness of themselves.
This report is a comparative study of psychogalvanic responses to the image of slalom, watching movie of it, watching movie with music of it, and listening music of skiing, among skilled skiers, beginners and unexperienced subjects. The results of these experiments were as following: The skilled skiers responded with characteristic and rhythmical wave when they imagine their slalom, they observed the movie of it, they observed the movie with music of it, and they listened to music of skiing, while the beginers and the unexperienced subjects did not remarkable without music.
Though it is desired that physical education plays an important role in improving mental health, we must differentiate this fact from the value of physical education regrading its effectiveness in education itself. In order to increase the educational effects, appropriate procedures and guidance are needed. For the purpose of finding some clews for the instruction of physical education regarding mental health, the author conduucted a servey of a mental health test for high school athletes who were gifted with physical health and love for sports. The results of obtained here as follows; (1) They were not especially marked with higher degree of mental fitness than others. (2) No particular traits of mental fitness among them were found.