Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 28 , Issue 2
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1983 Volume 28 Issue 2 Pages Cover5-
    Published: September 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1983 Volume 28 Issue 2 Pages Cover6-
    Published: September 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Download PDF (31K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1983 Volume 28 Issue 2 Pages App3-
    Published: September 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Yoshinori Okade
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 28 Issue 2 Pages 89-100
    Published: September 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Das Auftreten des Fachs "Sport" in der BRD hat groβe Einflusse auf die Diskussion uber die Zielproblematik der Leibeserziehung in Japan ausgeubt. In der BRD haben die Didaktiker der Leibeserziehung in den 1960er Jahren die Zielproblematik der Leibeserziehung zur Diskussion gestellt. Diese fachdidaktische Diskussion hat ihnen theoretische Begrundungen fur die Ziele des Fachs "Sport" gegeben. Unter ihnen hat Ommo Grupe wichtige Beitrage zur fachdidaktischen Diskussion geleistet. Aber man hat bisher noch nicht naher untersucht, welche Rolle seine Theorie in der Diskussion gespielt hat. Der Zweck dieser Studie besteht darin, die fachdidaktische Bedeutung seiner "Theorie der Leiblichkeit" klar herauszustellen. Hier werden seine Schriften unter den folgenden Gesichtspunkten betrachtet. 1). Watum haf Grupe eine neue "Theorie der Leiblichkeit" aufgestellt? 2). Was fur Unterschiede gibt es zwischen seiner "Theorie der Leiblichkeit" und den bisherigen Auffassungen vom Leiblich-Korperlichen ? 3). Welche Bedutung hat die Bewegung aufgrund seiner "Theorie der Leiblichkeit"? Die Ergebnisse sind die fo1genden: 1). Aus seiner Untersuchung uber die fruheren Theorien der Leibeserziehung ergibt sich, daβ die Rolle des Sports in der Erziehung tatsachlich von der Beantwortung der Frage nach dem Leib des Menschen abhangt, daβ das unvollstandige monistische oder dualistische Denken eine zentrale Rolle in den bisherigen Theorien gespielt hat und daβ dieses Denken Miβverstandnisse fur die padagogischen Moglichkeiten des Sports ergeben hat. Also versucht Grupe dieses einseitige Verstandnis fur die Rolle des Leibes mit richtigeren Begrundungen zu uberwinden. 2). Die traditionellen Schemata monistischer oder dualistischer Art, die scharfen Abgrenzungen des "Ichs" vom Leib kennen, erscheinen Grupe wie eine unzulassige Vereinfachung.Die Diskussion uber die Leiblichkeit des Menschen hebt den erlebten Leib vom Korper ab und bezieht ihn in den Zusammenhang des Menschen mit seiner We1t ein. Hier werden die starren Grenzen zwischen Ich, Leib und Welt aufge1ost. Ich, Leib und Welt bilden ein Verhaltnis, dem Veranderlichkeit zu eigen ist, das nie in sich g1eich ist, das stets neue Bedeutung hat, das bei aller auβ eren " Stetigkeit " des Leibes in Gestalt und Form "Prozeβ" ist. 3). Aufgrund der Ergebnisse dieser Diskussion uber die Leiblichkeit des Menschen fragt Grupe nach der Bedeutung der Bewegung. Die menschlische Bewegung ist ein sehr wichtiger Teil des Ich-Leib-Welt-Verhaltnisses. Die Bewegung ist das Medium, durch das wir uns unserer Umwelt als dem lnbegriff tatsachlicher oder moglicher Situationen zuwenden. Die Bewegung ermoglicht uns gleichzeitig Die Wahrnehmung der Welt, durch die wir sie erleben und erkennen. Die Bewegung muβ in diesem Sinne erlernt werden.
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  • masasige sugimoto
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 28 Issue 2 Pages 101-112
    Published: September 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    "Adolescence" (1904) by Granville Stanley Hall, makes us notice, when we read it from the historical viewpoint of physical education thoughts, the following four points. (1) The concept of motor education in his paper sets the ends of motor education at "Physical Perfection," i.e., character building derived from the viewpoint of "more evolved evolutional monism" and it involves as its methods ( i ) industrial education (ii) manual training (iii)gymnastics (iv) play, sports, game comprehended from the angle of recapitulation theory.(2) Therefore, Hall' s theory of motor education (Physical Education) is erroneously understood by J.F. Williams when he simply interprets Hall's theory as "physical education for mental"(3) Hall's theory of motor education as seen from the viewpoint of the recapitu1ation theory seems to have influence upon H.L. Gulick (for example in "Philosophy of Play") T.D. Wood (for example in "Health and Education" and "New Physical Education") etc. in the transitiona1period of American physical education. (4) Hall's concept of motor education is neither the same as "physical culture" of Amherst College where human beings are regarded as the reflex of God nor the concept of "physical education" of Williams who takes psycho1ogy and physiology into consideration but regards human beings as cultural and social products. Hall's motor education reveals manifestly the natural scientific standpoint of American physical education circle where Darwin's shock was still affecting.
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  • Shiro Nakagomi, Masashi Suzuki
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 28 Issue 2 Pages 113-127
    Published: September 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    This study reports on the relationship between stage fright in sport and ego function as predicted from Rorschach protoco1s. According to scores on Ichimura's stage fright questionnaire, along with confirmation by persons such as coaches and teammates, two subject groups were chosen from among 122 college male athletes: the high-stage fright group (H-SF Group)consisted of 12 athletes with the highest scores, and the low-stage fright group (L-SF Group)those with the lowest scores. These two groups were compared by the Klopfer's Rorschach Prognostic Rating Scale (RPRS). Both the raw and weighted scores in Sum (sammation), FM (animal movement response),and FL (form level) showed significant differences between the H-SF and L-SF groups, and in M (hunan movement response) the difference approached significance. The L-SF group scored higher than the H-SF group in these categories. The two groups were also compared on other scales. The L-SF group scored higher than the H-SF group on total responses (R), initial response time (R_1T), and average form level for each card. In addition, one case representative of each group was selected from another sample (N = 69), and they were examined in detail with the Rorschach test and in interview. The differences between these two cases were the same as those found in the first sample. And the subject with low-stage fright was more able to control emotional stimulus and livelier in mental activity than the other. On the basis of these results, the subjects were considered from the standpoint of ego function. The L-SF group was superior to the H-SF group in sensitivity to inner impulse, reality testing and the faculty of self-realization. Persons not suffering stage fright possess a strong ego with an active and rich inner world, an ego that is capable of handling anxietyderived from psychological objects and is active in adapting to the outer world (high growth motives) .The conclusion was drawn that the L-SF group has healthier ego strength than the H-SF group.
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  • Tamotsu Nishida, Kimihiro Inomata, Yoshinori Okazawa
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 28 Issue 2 Pages 129-139
    Published: September 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The main purpose of the present study was to identify some of personality factors influencing perceived exertion responses under two different exercise conditions. Fifty male university students were required to pedal a bicycle ergometer at 50 rpm during l0 and 30 minutes-exercise periods. The order of the exercise presentation was counterbalanced and each exercise wan administered on separate days with one week interval. The ratings of perceived exertion which consist of central and local factors were conducted at each heart rate index point (heart rate during exercise/heart rate after one minute exercise) under the two exercise conditions. As the predictor variables for the perceived exertion, California Psychological Inventory (CPI) was employed and administered two weeks before the experiment. The data were analyzed by use of a multiple regression technique. The main results were summarized ad follows: 1. Contribution of the personality factors to the perceived exertion responses was relatively small under both l0 and 30 minutes-exercise conditions. The contribution under 30 minutes-exercise condition, however, was relatively larger than under l0 minutes-exercise condition. 2. Under 30 minutes-exercise condition, Social Presence factor of CPI was extracted from the multiple regression analyses as a first predictor variable for almost heart rate index points. The factor had larger contribution to the perceived exertion responses than other CPI factors. 3. Concerning the contribution of personality factors to the perceived exertion responses, there were no distinct differences between the central and local factors.
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  • Naoki Yonekawa, Yoshinori Okazawa, Motonobu Ishii, Masaaki Kagawa
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 28 Issue 2 Pages 141-152
    Published: September 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of persuasive communications on an individual's attitude change toward sport, which may be brought out through the study of individual's personality traits. The subjects for the study were 259 male college students. A test in attitude toward sports-manship, attitude toward winning and losing in sport, and the Japanese version of the Maudsley Personality Inventory were administered as pre-tests. One week after these pre-tests, the subjects were made to 1isten to either one of the following cassette recordings. The viewpoints of these recordings, which were different from each other, were thus; Condition A : Viewpoint affirming sportsmanship. Condition B : Viewpoint denying sportsmanship. As a control condition some of the subjects were subjected to a third condition C, where no viewpoint was presented at all. As soon as they had finished listening to the recordings the subjects were then subjected to the following post-tests: a test in attitude toward sportsmanship and a test in attitude toward winning and losing in sport. Forty-eight extraverts and 48 introverts (16 to each condition) were employed as subjects in the analysis of this study. They were chosen on the basis of their L (lie), E (extraversion), and N (neuroticism) scores in the Japanese version of the Maudsley Personality Inventory. The analysis was separately carried out on the attitude toward sportsmanship and the attitude toward winning and losing in sport, using a two-factor analysis of covariance, in which one factor was the personality groups (2), the other the persuasive conditions (3). The results obtained were as follows: 1) Concerning the attitude toward sportsmanship, the extravert group showed a greater attitude change in the direction of being persuaded than did the introvert group. This attitude change supported the proposed hypothesis. 2) Concerning the attitude toward winning and losing in sport, only under condition A, the extravert group showed a greater attitude in the direction of being persuaded than did the introvert group. From the results above it was suggested that extraverts were persuaded more easily then introverts.
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  • Kaoru Takamatsul, Shinlichi Saitoh, Toshiaki Otsuka
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 28 Issue 2 Pages 153-163
    Published: September 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    This study examined how the relationship between heart rate (HR) and relative oxygen intake (% VO_2 max) changes with exercise time in continuous running, in as much as HR and % VO_2 max are the most frequently used indices of work intensity of aerobic exercise. Subjects were four male middle and long distance runners and one untrained male. Experimental exercise was a treadmill running without inclination at constant velocity. Running velocities used were three to five levels at which the subjects exhausted in four to thirty minutes, and additional three to five levels at which the subjects were able to run more than thirty minutes. The exercise was conducted under the temperature condition of 20-30℃. The results are summarized as follows: 1. For the purpose of this study, in the first step, two equations estimating HR and oxygen intake (VO_2) were derived from running velocity (V) and exercise time (t), variations of these due to the experimental sessions were known to be very small. HR or VO_2 estimated from these equations well approximated the values measured. These two equations were respectively denoted (6) and (7) in the course of discussion: HR= a(t)+b(t)・V+c (t)・V^2-(6), VO_2=A(t)+B(t)・V+C(t)・V^2-(7),Where the coefficients in the equations were quadratic functions of exercise time t. In the next step, eliminating V in the equations (6) and (7) VO_2 was estimated from HR and exercise time at which the HR appeared Relative error of estimate of all data measured was 4.06±0.63% (3.28-4.94%) for the average of five subjects. Since the values thus estimated well approximated the values actually measured, the procedure estimating VO_2 from HR and exercise time may be accepted valid. 2. Based on the relationship between HR and % VO_2 max in function of exercise time, it was found that % VO_2 max at a given relative heart rate (% HR max) became smaller with the increase in exercise time. It was also found that the higher the % HR max, the larger the rate of the decrease was, and that % VO_2 max at the thirty minutes in the case of 100 % HR max (l85.2±7.5 beats.min^-1) was about 24 % sma1ler than that for the same case at the four minutes. These results suggest that % VO_2 max might be overestimated for the longer exercise time even if % HR max wax the same, and that the higher the % HR max, the larger the degree of overestimation would be. 3. It may be concluded that exercise time at which the HR appeared should be taken into account when using HR as an index of work intensity especially under the condition of high temperature (about 20-30℃).
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  • Type: Appendix
    1983 Volume 28 Issue 2 Pages 165-166
    Published: September 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1983 Volume 28 Issue 2 Pages 167-170
    Published: September 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1983 Volume 28 Issue 2 Pages 171-175
    Published: September 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1983 Volume 28 Issue 2 Pages App4-
    Published: September 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Download PDF (35K)
  • Type: Cover
    1983 Volume 28 Issue 2 Pages Cover7-
    Published: September 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (26K)
  • Type: Cover
    1983 Volume 28 Issue 2 Pages Cover8-
    Published: September 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (26K)
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