The term "principles of physical education" has been commonly used among the researchers and practitioners of physica1 education today. It is more referred to concepts related ot philosophical aspect of physical education, such as implications and essentials, rather than topics partaining to physica1 education activities. The term, however, when critically examined regarding to its contents, scope and method of study, has not been clearly defined so far. While research activities of physical education today tend to be divided into variety of specific sub-areas, integration of such study outcomes to build theory system of physical education systematically is strongly wanted. Reviewing such recent trends in physical education and considering the nature of principles of physical education in the United States, this study intends to verify "principles" and "philosophy" of physical education.
The purpose of this study was to predict the aptitude of basketball players. It was hypothesized that the excellent players would have a certain good aptitude. Under this working hypothesis, sixty-four test items, selected from seven ability areas, which were considered to cover all aspects of the aptitude of basketball player, were administered to members of the two groups of senior high school level : the one consisted of 25 excellent basketball players, and the other, 17 novice players. In order to discriminate the excellent players from the novice players more clearly in terms of the aptitude of basketball player, the data were analyzed using a multiple correlation ratio method devised as one of the discriminant function method. Investigating the coefficients of the obtained discriminant function and the structure vector indicating the correlation of each item with the discriminant function, thirteen items were selected, which were seemed to be useful to predict the aptitude of basketball player. Furthermore, in order to reduce the number of variables for use, taking account of the validity and practicality of the test, multiple correlation method was applied to the correlation matrix which consisted of same variables and discriminant function values as a criterion. Consequently, the following variables were selected as the predictive variables : chest girth (X_1), side step (X_2), criss-cross jump (X_3), 5 meter dash (X_4), trunk extention (X_5), body reaction time (X_6), ball handling test (X_7), basketball shooting test (X_8), dribbling test (X_9), and knowledge test of basketball (X_<10>). Then, the index (Y) for predicting the aptitude of basketball player was devised in the following linear function form, Y = 0.0101X_1 - 0 0185X_2 + 0.0719X_3 + 0.6899X_4 + O.0341X_5 + 9.6134X_6 - 0.l246X_7 + 0.0648X_8 + O.3204X_9 + 0.0109X_<10> - 18.6884 where, X_i (i = 1,2,・・・・・・,10) stands for the above mentioned paraemters, respectively.
It is understood that physical growth is the result of interaction between inherent and acquired variables. In this paper, as many variables as possible were measured which had been referred to in previous literature, and these measured variables were all assumed to be variables influencing physical growth. Some of the more important variables influencing physical growth were brought to light here. Also the characteristics of the variables that contributed to physical growth at infancy and the variables relating also to physical growth were investigated. The results obtained were as follows : 1) ( a ) Nine variables were selected as the most important variables influencing physical growth at infancy in males : * deviant food habits * nutrition from mother's milk * degree of consumption of school lunch * mineral nutrition content of diet * protein nutrition content of diet * age (in months) * level of father's income * whether or not both parents working * degree of meat consumption ( b ) Nine variables were selected as most important for females : * level of father's income * fat nutrition content of diet * attitude towards physical activity * deviant food habits * degree of meat consumption * period of pregnancy * number of hours a day of sleep * father's highest level of education * age (in months) 2) The most important variables affecting physical growth at infancy in both males and females were 9 variables, that is : deviant food habits, level of father's income, degree of meat consumption, father's highest level of education, degree of consumption of school lunch, nutrition from mother's milk, age in months, attitude towards physical activity and father's job. 3) The variables that were found most important to physical growth at infancy did not always influence height, body weight, chest girth and sex, respectively. Therefore only certain variables have strong influence in some cases in the process of the physical growth. 4) On the other hand, there were very important variables also found to be related to physical growth. In this case, there were 9 significantly related variables common to both male and female infants but different in degree of influence.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the peculiarities of morphological growths by the allometric analysis. The materials used for this study were the longitudinal data of the height, weight, chest circumference, lower limb length, calf circumference and upper arm circumference of 60 boys whose age ranging from 10 to 14 years old, taken in 1964-68. According to the annual growth rate of the height, the growth patterns were classified into four types (designated as A, B, C and D patterns). The A, B, C and D patterns, correspond to ascending, descending, convex and concave types in the standard score vs. age curves, respectively. The logarithm of mean values of the morphological measurements (log y) were plotted against that of the height (log x). The plotts obtained were approximately linear, i. e., log y = log b + a log x, where a and b are constants. The values of a and log b were determined from the above plotts by the method of least squares. The results obtained were as follows; 1) The A, B and C patterns were diphasic while the D pattern was uniphasic on the weight vs. height curves. There were the following tendencies among the four patterns for the above curves : The boys of the B pattern were more precocious type, while those of D pattern were of later in growth. 2) No significant differences were observed among the four patterns on the lower limb length vs. height curves. However, the B pattern showed smaller a values than others after the critical point. 3) The A, B and C patterns were diphasic on the chest circumference vs. height curvres. The A and C patterns showed discontinuities while the B pattern showed the critical point. The D pattern showed neither critical point nor discontinuity. 4) The A pattern were uniphasic while the B, C and D patterns were diphasic on the calf circumference and the upper arm circumference vs. height curves. The above curves showed heigher value of a than the theoretical value (a=1) for each pattern. For the B and C patterns, however, the values of a for the post-critical point were heigher than those for the previous one.
Using two groups of college women, eleven and nine as subjects, the effects of 5-minute stepping exercise for four weeks (some for eight weeks) were examined. The subjects in the harder training group undertook the exercise, i. e., stepping up and down three 19-cm tall stairs in every four seconds, four times a week, while those in the easier group, three times a week. The relative metabolic rate of this exercise was obtained to be 5.5, which was equivalent to 75.5% of the mean maxVO_2 value of themselves. The results obtained follow:1) No significant changes were found in maximun heart rate, maximum respiratory rate, maximum breathing capacity and tidal volume between the pre and post training subjects. 2) Maximum VO_2, maximum VO_2/kg and O_2 pulse values in the harder training subjects significantly increased, whi1e O_2 pulse value in the easier group did the same. 3) The subjects who took eight week training showed significant increase in maximum VO_2/kg regardless of whether three or four times a week of exercise frequency. 4) Subjects with low maximum VO_2/kg values resulted in effective increase upon three times a week of exercise, while those with average value of 31ml/kg. min resulted in significant effect upon four times a week of exercise, but no effect upon three times a week. Among the subjects with 32 ml/kg. min in maximum VO_2 value, the training load reached only to 70% of the maximum capacity, and hence no training effects were found.