Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 25 , Issue 2
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1980 Volume 25 Issue 2 Pages Cover5-
    Published: September 01, 1980
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1980 Volume 25 Issue 2 Pages Cover6-
    Published: September 01, 1980
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (111K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1980 Volume 25 Issue 2 Pages App3-
    Published: September 01, 1980
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Tatsuya Kasai
    Type: Article
    1980 Volume 25 Issue 2 Pages 95-104
    Published: September 01, 1980
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The present study attempted to approach to the neurophysiological aspects of the organization of overt motor response in a simple reaction time (RT) situation, in particular to investigate closely the correlation between the RT and the facilitation of monosynaptic reflex (H-reflex) which occurs just prior to the onset of a voluntary movement (plantar and dorsal flexion of foot) and the effects of eliciting H-reflexes on RTs. As amplitudes of H-reflexes are reflected on the state of excitability of the pool of spinal alpha motor neurones resulted from motor commands from the upper center (supraspinal influence) in the case of a voluntary movement, the investigation of correlation between amplitudes of H-reflexes and RTs can clarify the mechanism of motor system. H-reflexes were elicited from human subjects (8 male students) at various intervals (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100msec) after the reaction signal (RS), and RTs (EMG-RT) were recorded simultaneously. Major results may be summarized as follows; 1) The statistically significant negative correlations between amplitudes of H-reflexes and RTs were recognized. 2) Those results were similarly recognized regardless to the relation between the H-reflex eliciting foot and the reacting foot ipsilateral or contralateral whenever those muscles were corresponding. 3) But, no significant correlations were found between RTs and amplitudes of H-reflexes elicited from antagonists. From those results, the neurophysiological aspects of the specific and non-specific (general) interaction from the upper motor center were discussed.
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  • Toyohiko Ito
    Type: Article
    1980 Volume 25 Issue 2 Pages 105-111
    Published: September 01, 1980
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Causal attributes for success and failure following motor performance were investigated. Fifth-grade boys (N=178) were randomly assigned to 2 × 2 (expectancy × outcome) conditions, and were asked to make causal attributes for success and failure by means of sets of six paired-camparison questions, all possible pairings of the four attributional factors (ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck). As hypothesized, external factors were more attributed for failure than for success. But, in internal factors, only effort were more attributed for success than for failure, and ability factor did not support the hypothesis. The another hypothesis that effects of expectancy disconfirmation did not affect attributional pattern of all four factors. Viewing attributional results, it would seem that subjects viewed success as resulting primarily from effort which they could control, while failures were seen to result from lack of ability for which they had no control. These finding would give certain implications for sport coaching.
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  • Yoshihiko Yamazaki, Nobukazu Kito, Junzo Mitsui, Takeomi Akimura
    Type: Article
    1980 Volume 25 Issue 2 Pages 113-118
    Published: September 01, 1980
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    During rhythmic hopping in man with both knees extended, electromyograms (EMGs) of the soleus (SOL). medial gastrocnemius (MG), and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles and the ankle joint angle were recorded. In landing phase where triceps surae are stretched, synchronized EMGs were observed in SOL, while MG did not show a clear synchronization. The synchronized EMGs in soleus were apparent at a latency of the segmental spinal stretch reflex. While the subjects were hopping on a plate, which was removed unexpectedly, the synchronized SOL EMGs which have been observed before removing the plate did not appear at the time estimated from the bop immediately preceding. The finding seems to indicate that the synchronized EMGs were not the pre-programmed but the stretch evoked. H-reflex of the soleus was recorded in a standing posture with the same recording condition as applied to the hopping movements. The wave form of H-reflex was almost identical with the synchronized EMGs of soleus. These results indicate that the synchronized EMGs in SOL are the spinal monosynaptic stretch reflex. While SOL and MG showed activities before the contact of the feet with the floor in landing, the activities of MG were more conspicuous than those of SOL EMGs of SOL and MG ended about 100msec after the stretch. It seems, that in rhythmic hopping movements the pre-programmed and the spinal stretch reflex of the triceps surae play an important role.
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  • Nobuo Tanaka, Junzo Tsujita, Makoto Mayuzumi, Takanobu Azuma, Toshio Y ...
    Type: Article
    1980 Volume 25 Issue 2 Pages 119-126
    Published: September 01, 1980
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    In an attempt to compare changes in erythrocyte count, hematocrit and erythropoietin levels of athletes induced by strenuous physical training with those of nonathletes, twenty three male well trained university athletes and 12 male nonathletic university students were subjected to exercise on a Monark bicycle ergometer with a working intensity of about 8 in relative metabolic rate for 2 hours for successive 7 days during summer. The results obtained were as follows: The mean values of decrease in erythrocyte count and hematocrit after one week's strenuous muscular exercise for non-athletes were greater than those for athletes. In both athletes and nonathletes, subjects with higher value of hematocrit showed a tendency of greater fall in hematocrit after physical training. Nonathletes showed smaller mean value of reticulocyte count before physical training than the athletes. The former showed an increase in reticulocyte count after physical training, while the latter showed essentially no change in reticulocyte count. Nonathletes showed lower erythropoietin levels before physical training than the athletes. Nonathletes showed no change in erythropoietin levels after physical training, while the athletes showed a marked increase in this variable after the training. These results suggest that there were marked differences between athletes and nonathletes in the state of destruction and production of erythrocyte before and after the strenuous physical training which lasted for 7 successive days. While the rate of erythrocyte production for nonathletes might be slower than that for athletes at any time, the rate of erythrocyte destruction for nonathletes might be slower before the physical training and might be faster during and after the physical training than that for the athletes.
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  • Shiro Nakagomi, Masashi Suzuki
    Type: Article
    1980 Volume 25 Issue 2 Pages 127-138
    Published: September 01, 1980
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    In recent years a number of clinical and research reports on the prescription of physical movement, especially sport activities, for promoting the improvement of psychiatric patients have been issued. However, there are very few reports which provide theoretical explanations for its therapeutic effects, that is, how physical movement creates beneficial effects on mental/emotional health from a certain theoretical viewpoint. In this paper many clinical and research reports concerned with the relationships between physical fitness and emotional health and with the applications of movement therapy or sport therapy to mental illness, especially to neurosis, schizophrenia and depression, were reviewed. In regard to the former, it was elucidated that the reviewed reports neither wholly confirms nor totally denies the positive relationship between physical fitness and emotional health, so that no single statement can be made at this point. But, even though the nature and the therapeutic meaning of the prescribed physical movement differs among various types of movement therapy, the reports concerning movement therapy support the view that, such therapy does have some psychotherapeutic values. The authors, regarding movement therapy as an adjunctive method of psychotherapy, tried to explain how movement therapy corresponds with or be related to psychotherapeutic theories by discussing the therapeutic values from the following points of view. 1) The improvement in the relationship established between a therapist and a client: physical movement used in the psychotherapeutic situation contributes to the improvement in the relationship between a therapist and a client by rousing empathic mutual understandings. Given the improvement in the basic therapeutic situation, then these movement therapies will be expected to encourage constructive character modification. 2) Its effectiveness as a means of reaching therapeutic insight: Physical movement gives therapists valuable information and cues for understanding clients' inner worlds, and, for clients, it will act as a means of reaching their unconscious fields. 3) Its effect as an agent of cognitive change: When clients become more physically fit, the specific feedback cues from the body will increase clients' psychological fitness by improving their selfimages. Similarly, because of the psychosomatic cycle of energy interdependence, this cognitive change will act on and change clients' cognitions of their outer world so as to inhibit anxiety provoked by the outer world.
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  • Keiji Umeno, Akira Tsujino
    Type: Article
    1980 Volume 25 Issue 2 Pages 139-148
    Published: September 01, 1980
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    In most of the attitude studies on physical education as activity courses, the attitude scales, as well as Wear Attitude Inventory, have been determined inductively by the goals of physical education. It is, however, considered that attitude measurement should be dependent on the structure of attitudes among children toward the instruction of physical activity courses. The present study was designed (a) to develop attitude scales for the lower grade children in elementary school using factor analysis, and (b) to confirm its validity as a means of analyzing the effect of the instruction. The results obtained are as follows: 1) The structure of attitudes among the lower grade children in elementary school toward instructions as physical activity courses could be explained by the following two factors: The first factor could be named "Pleasure" for physical activities, and the second factor could be named "Evaluation" for the instruction of physical activity courses. 2) In an attempt to construct attitude scales originated in the structure of attitudes among children toward the instruction of physical activity courses, items with the value of more than Mean + 1S.D. of the absolute values of factor loadings were selected. 3) Significant coefficients of Split-half Reliability were found in "Pleasure" scale for the first grade children and in "Pleasure" and "Evaluation" scales for the second-grade children. 4) In terms of "Pleasure" scale for the first-grade children and "Pleasure" and "Evaluation" scales for the second-grade children, significant negative correlations were observed between attitude score at the beginning of a term and the magnitudes of change in the score during the term. In addition, the increase of "Evaluation" score was not so remarkable than "Pleasure" score. 5) From the above results of 3) and 4), it was suggested that the three scales toward the instruction of physical activity courses had the validity as a means of analyzing the instruction, on these scales consisted of eight statements respectively.
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  • Kiyokazu Kitamura, Akio Fukuda, Keiji Yamaji, Kazuo Arisawa
    Type: Article
    1980 Volume 25 Issue 2 Pages 149-153
    Published: September 01, 1980
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this study, a device and methodology has been proposed for analysis of O_2 and CO_2 by the Gas-Chromatography which in widely used in the field of applied chemistry. In order to determine whether the Gas-Chromatography is reliable or not, comparison between oxygen uptake determined by Gas-Chromatography and that by Scholander gas analyzer was performed. It was found that there was a close correlation between the both methods (r = 0.997). Furthermore, no significant differences were observed between the values obtained by two methods.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1980 Volume 25 Issue 2 Pages 155-156
    Published: September 01, 1980
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1980 Volume 25 Issue 2 Pages 157-161
    Published: September 01, 1980
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Download PDF (258K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1980 Volume 25 Issue 2 Pages App4-
    Published: September 01, 1980
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (34K)
  • Type: Cover
    1980 Volume 25 Issue 2 Pages Cover7-
    Published: September 01, 1980
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (87K)
  • Type: Cover
    1980 Volume 25 Issue 2 Pages Cover8-
    Published: September 01, 1980
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (87K)
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