Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 45 , Issue 2
Showing 1-20 articles out of 20 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 2 Pages Cover5-
    Published: March 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (43K)
  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 2 Pages Cover6-
    Published: March 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (43K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 2 Pages App2-
    Published: March 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (228K)
  • Takeo Takahashi
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 2 Pages 147-162
    Published: March 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A study was conducted to examine the characteristics of physical education teaching using a process-product research model we had employed for more than ten years. The product was measured in terms of studens' evaluation of physical education classes, and the process was observed through systematic observation instruments assessing student behaviors, teacher behaviors and teaching style. By analyzing the relationships between the process and product variables, we tried to clarify the characterristics of physical education teaching evaluated by students. The main characteristics of the process were as follows. 1) Manegement time was less and physical education content was greater. 2) Learning discipline was well established, so that off-task behavior was rarely obseved. 3) The time of engagement, ALT and mortor ALT were increased. 4) Positive human relationships among students were observed more frequently. 5) Positive affective behavior was expressed more among students, giving a brighter class atomosphere. 6) There was less management behavior and instruction behavior by teacher. 7) Interaction behaviors of the teacher was more active. 8) Positive and corrective feedback for individual motor skill learning was performed more frequently. 9) Feedbacks evaluated from "interactive", "transmissible" and "sympathetic" viewpoints was evident more frequently. 10) An indirect teaching style was used more frequently than a direct teaching style. These characteristics were considered to be the basic requirements of teaching in physical education, and could be summarized as three main factors : "learning momentum", "class atomosphere" and "learning initiative".
    Download PDF (1593K)
  • Hideaki Kinoshita
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 2 Pages 163-173
    Published: March 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    From the idea of a relationship betwen intestinal area and sitting height as part of the Nem System of Feeding proposed by Clemens Pirquet associated with the theory of nutrition, it is thought that the growth of bones is caused by the development of internal organs during the process of body growth. According to this idea, it is hypothesized that there is a significant positive correlation or a direct proportion of sitting height to leg length (=height-sitting height). The purpose of this study was to investigate the significance of sitting height as an index of the process of body growth from the viewpoint of the relationship between sitting height and leg length. The study was done in three parts. The first involved comparison of the growth curves for sitting height with those for leg length of subjects from five different generations (born in 1930, 1942, 1954, 1966, and 1978). The second was a comparison among the relationships of sitting height to leg length in subjects aged 6, 15, 17, and 20 born in each year from 1930 to 1990. The third was a comparison among the relationships of sitting height to leg length for subjects of a specific age with the same subjects of other specific ages in the future. The data were obtained from annual nationwide statistics for mean standing height and sitting height since 1937, when measurement of sitting height was started in schools. The measurement was authorized by the Ministry of Education as part of the School Health Examination and Physical Fitness Tests. The subjects ranged in age from 6 to 24 yr, although the data from 1940 to 1948 were missing because of the World War II. The study conclusions were : 1. Sitting height at the age of 6 yr is the most effective index for predicting leg length at subsequent ages. 2. Sitting height is a valuable index of not only intestinal area but also body growth. 3. However, sitting height in adults is not a useful index because of the small differences it shows.
    Download PDF (769K)
  • Shinobu Akimoto
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 2 Pages 174-185
    Published: March 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to consider the spread and decline of the Union game of hockey as played under the rules of the National Hockey Union (NHU) in England. The historical materials used were derived mainly from the minutes of the NHU, and local and sporting newspapers. The results of this study are summarized as follows. 1) The NHU was a governing body that adopted and standardized the Blackheath game as played under the rules of the Blackheath Hockey Club. The clubs in Bristol usually conducted meetings of the NHU. Spread of the clubs affiliated to the NHU was confined to within Bristol and Blackheath, and the number of HNU clubs never exceeded 13 or 14. 2) The rules of play were similar under both the Blackheath game and the Union game. However, new regulations were added to the Union game, including shortening of the distance between the goals, introduction of umpires and a referee, and codifying the penalties for infractions of the rules. 3) After the formation of the NHU, the Union game achieved regular popularity in and around Bristol. The game was at its peak in the season 1891 / 92. 4) After the season 1893 / 94, the Association game as played under the rules of the Hockey Association gained favor in the West of England. The Union game, on the other hand, lost its popularity. Because of the principal Union clubs adopting the Association game and becoming affiliated to the WCHA, which was the Western branch of the Hockey Association, the NHU was dissolved in March 1895. The decline of the Union game can be explained by the broad diffusion of the Association game and the gap between the ideals of the Union and the Association games.
    Download PDF (1041K)
  • Takahide Baba, Yukihiro Wada, Akira Ito
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 2 Pages 186-200
    Published: March 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The muscular activity pattern, function and maximal contraction velocity during the starting dash and sprint running at maximal velocity were studied. The subjects were five adult male sprinters, whose sprint running movements in the sagittal plain were analyzed (100 fps) from videotape recordings made with a high-speed catera. The ground reaction forces and EMGs of eight leg muscles were also recorded. Changes in length from the origin to the insertion (muscle-tendon complex : MTC) of the eight leg muscles were calculated using several methods reported by Grieve et al. (1978), Hawkins and Hull (1990), Visser et al. (1990) and Jacobs and Van Ingen Schenau (1993). The muscular activity pattern and the maximal contraction velocity were investigate from the change in length of the MTC when the EMG activity was observed. The turnover velocity of the muscular activity pattern in the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) was calculated from the acceleration of the contraction. Also the hip, knee and ankle joint torques were calculated, and the following results were obtained.1. Changes in muscular activity pattern and maximal contraction velocity during the starting dash During the first half of the swing period, the m.gluteus maximus exhibited shortening activity, the m.rectus femoris exhibited stretching activity and the m.iliopsoas exhibited SSC muscular activity. The m.vastus lateralis exhibited shortening activity during the last half of the swing period and stretching activity during the first half of the foot contact period. The m.biceps femoris exhibited SSC muscular activity from the middle of the swing period to the middle of the foot contact period. The m.gastrocnemius and m.soleus exhibited SSC muscular activity during the foot contact period. Above all, the maximal shortening stretching velocity, and the turnover velocity increased with increasing sprint running velocity after the start, except for the shortening velocity of the m.gastrocnemius and m.soleus, and the stretching velocity of the m.vastus lateralis, whose contraction velocity stayed almost constant. 2. Muscular activity and function during sprint running at maximal velocity During the first half of the swing period, the m.rectus femoris produced knee extension troque by stretching activity which functioned to reduce the knee flexion force which occurred through the joint force related to hip flexion torque. During the latter half of the swing period, knee flexion torque developed as a by-product from the m.biceps femoris, which serves as a hip extensor. On the other hand, the knee extension force which occurred through the joint force related to hip extension torque, the momentum required to extend the knee joint, and the knee extension torque which was produced by the shortening activity of the m.vastus lateralis were observed during the same period. Therefore, the knee extension movement observed from the outside occurred as a result of the total of these forces. The m.tibialis anterior acted to offset the ankle extension force which occurred through the joint force related to knee extension torque during the first half of the swing period, and the ankle extension torque developed during the latter half of the swing period preparation for foot contact by the m.gastrocnemius an m.soleus.
    Download PDF (1553K)
  • Tomohiro Okura, Yoichi Hayashi, Michi Wada, Kiyoji Tanaka
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 2 Pages 201-212
    Published: March 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Classical methods for the regulation of exercise intensity, based on objective physiological indices, e.g.heart rate oxygen uptake, have been indicated to be inadequate for maintaining subjective motivation contributing to exercise adherence. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) developed by Borg has also been utilized in the setting of exercise prescription. However, a number of problems with this approach have been pointed out by some investigators. Therefore, we have proposed another method for self-prescription of exercise intensity through evaluation of psychological and physiological validity. The purpose of this study was to compare cardiorespiratory and psychological responses at self-prescribed power outputs 20-min cycling before (Pre) and after (Post) a 3-month supervised aerobic exercise program. Fourteen healthy middle-aged women (mean age 46±5 years) who had not taken regular exercise during the previous 5 years volunteered to participate in the study. Although the percentage lactate threshold (%VO_2LT) during the 20 min of cycling at Pre (108%VO_2LT) was significantly higher than that at Post (98%VO_2LT), the intensities selected by the subjects at Pre were also considered safe and effective. Furthermore, the subjects reported comfortable experiences and improvement of mood, which were recognized to have positive effects on exercise adherence, after 20-min cycling under both conditions. Thus, it is suggested that use of self-prescribed intensity for exercise prescription can be one of the ways of solving problems related to execise adherence.
    Download PDF (1242K)
  • Shingo Oda, Noriyuki Kida
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 2 Pages 213-224
    Published: March 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Maximal isometric force and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the distal and proximal muscles during simultaneous and separate contractions of elbow flexion and hand grip contraction were investigated in 14 subjects. The subjects were asked to perform the force generation as strongly and quickly as possible for 2 s under three conditions : (1) hand grip only, (2) elbow flexion only, and (3) both contractions simultaneously. EMG activities were recorded from the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), extensor digitorum (ED) and biceps brachii (BB). The results are summarized as follows:1) Elbow flexion in the simultaneous condition showed decrements in the force and EMG of the BB during the rising phase. The hand grip, however, showed no decrements in the force or EMGs of the FDS and ED. 2) During the plateau phase, elbow flexion in the simultaneous condition exhibited a decrease in the force and EMG of the ED, while no changes were observed in the EMG of the FDS. Despite a decrement in the EMG of the BB, the force of elbow flexion was not decreased. These results suggest that there are differences in neural activity between the rising and the plateau phase s during maximal simultaneous elbow flexion and hand grip contractions. In the rising phase, the central nervous system is considered to exert inhibitory effects on the neural activities of the proximal muscles so that contraction of the distal muscles is preferred. During the plateau phase, the force decrement of the hand grip might be due to a strategy whereby the neural activity of the ED is decreased.
    Download PDF (1228K)
  • Ryosuke Shigematsu, Yoichi Nakamura, Masaki Nakagaichi, Hunkyung Kim, ...
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 2 Pages 225-238
    Published: March 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Performance tests have the advantage of providing objective, quantifiable information on functional fitness in older adults. We had developed a functional fitness test (FFT) that assesses four domains (locomotion of the whole body, manipulation of the upper limb, manual dexterity, and change of posture) required for the performance of activities parallel to daily living (APDL). Seventeen items encompassing these four domains were administered to 213 older male adults aged 73.4±6.6 years. As the FFT needed to be sufficiently diverse to give a balanced picture of overall functional fitness, principal component analysis was applied to the correlation matrix. The test-retest reliability of each item was evaluated. Finally, the following 4 variables were selected for the assessment of FFT : repetitions of the bicipital flexion / extension (X_1), walking around two cones and sitting on a chair (X_2), moving beans with chopsticks (X_3), and reaching arms forward in a standing position (X_4). The principal component analysis was again applied to these four variables to derive the following equation of functional fitness age (FFA) based on the first principal component coefficient of each variable : FFA=-0.355X_1+0.361X_2-0.683X_3-0.315X_4+92.5. We then tested the cross-validity of the FFA equation using another 30 subjects (aged 74.0±6.2yr). The FFA (73.8±6.3yr) of this group was not significantly different from their chronological age. In conclusion, the proposed test battery could be an instrument for providing a comprehensive measure of functional fitness.
    Download PDF (1463K)
  • Kazuaki Sakai, Hajime Mizukami, Kazuto Saitoh, John Sheahan, Kaoru Tak ...
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 2 Pages 239-251
    Published: March 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The present study was to obtain a fundamental guideline for determining training objectives of intermittent high power output ability required by ball sport athletes. For this purpose, two experiments were undertaken. In both experiments, subjects were individually measured for ATP-CP, LA and O_2 energy delivery ability, and evaluated using anaerobic and aerobic indices. In experiment 1, 19 university handball players performed intermittent pedaling exercise. They were then compared after being divided into anaerobic and aerobic groups using the above anaerobic and aerobic indices. In experiment 2, 23 university basketball players performed intermittent sprint running exericse incorporating changes in direction. These subjects were also compared after being divided into two groups, as in experiment 1, and also after being further divided into four groups (A : high anaerobic / high aerobic, B : high anaerobic / low aerobic, C : low anaerobic / high aerobic, D : low anaerobic / low aerobic). The main results were as followes : (1) The aerobic group displayed higher power output in the middle and late stages of intermittent exercise. The difference in power output between the groups was more evident when they were compared according to relative power (percentage of maximum ATP-CP energy delivery ability) than when compared according to absolute power (Exp.1, 2). (2) Group A demonstrated the highest power output from the middle stage of intermittent exercise, followed in order by groups C, B and D. Also, the two high aerobic groups (A, C) demonstrated a higher relative power output than the two low aerobic groups (B, C) from the middle stage of intermittent exercise (Exp.2). (3) The correlation between high power output during intermittent exercise and anaerobic index was highest in set 1 and decreased with each progressive set. Conversely, the correlation between high power output and aerobic index was lowest in set 1 and tended to increase with each progressive set (Exp.1, 2). Furthermore, this correlation became higher at an earlier stage when the rest interval between sets was shorter (Exp.2). The above results indicate that in ball sports, intermittent high anaerobic power output training objectives need to be clarified, taking into consideration the anaerobic and aerobic energy delivery ability of the individual athlete. Furthermore, because the length and intensity of exercise changes depending on the particular sport being played or the tactics used, it is also necessary to take into account any changes in the influence of anaerobic and aerobic energy delibery capacity on performance.
    Download PDF (1208K)
  • Jun Okuno, Fumio Nakadomo, Tomohiro Okura, Kiyoji Tanaka
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 2 Pages 252-261
    Published: March 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A variety of techniques for assessing human body composition have been developed. However, the validity of these methods has not been compared in the same subjects. The purposes of this study were (1) to evaluate the validity of %body fat using 5 kinds of indirect method-4 brands of bioelectrical impedance (BI) analyzers and skinfold thickness-against body fat data derived by underwater weighting, and (2) to discuss the accuracy of each method. The subjects were 40 men and 61 women, aged 20 to 67 years (men : 31.0±11.0yr, women : 36.0±13.0yr). The BI analyzers used for this study were the Sekisui SS-103, Omron HBF-300, Ueda TYPE-PS, and Tanita TBF-534, and an Eiken caliper was used for skinfold thickness detrmination. Percentage of body fat etimated by each method was significantly correlated (r=0.55-0.77) with the data from underwater weighing in both sexes, and the standard error of estimate (SEE) for %body fat was about 3% for men. However, %fat estimated by the HBF-300 and skinfold thickness for women were significantly different from the results of underwater weighing, giving a SEE of 4% or over for all methods. The accuracy of %fat estimated by the TBF-534 was slightly worse than that for the other BI analyzers in both sexes. In women, the accuracy of %fat estimated by skinfold thickness was slightly worse than that by the BI methods. From these results, it is concluded that %fat can be estimated by each method without a large discrepancy. However, the validity of each method for estimating %fat may not be as high as other reference methods. Further research is necessary for improvement of prediction accuracy.
    Download PDF (1022K)
  • Hiroaki Imamura
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 2 Pages 262-266
    Published: March 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (669K)
  • Takeo Masaki
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 2 Pages 267-273
    Published: March 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In Japan, living of people became convenient in the time of high economic growth. Many people became inactive, and their physical functions had begun to show some negative changes. Furthermore, the pollution influenced negative health. On the other hand, it was considered that causes of such physical negative changes were "decrease of physical fitness". Therefore, "promoting of physical fitness" in school was strengthened, and as a result, a behavioral fitness showed some positive changes too. In various physical changes of children, we proceeded a study with the following methodology in order to make clear a problem of physical growth and development. 1) Primarily, we made a national network of health in Japanese children. 2) Nationwide investigation about "abnormalities in physical functions of children" which teachers in the school felt actually was started, and this survery was continued every 5 years. 3) About a matter of the felt actually, the fact research was carried out. 4) The whereabouts in problems of physical changes by investigating according to method and evaluation standard same as the past was searched. 5) We analyzed the results of the nationwide investigation of the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, and were able to discover success and problems of "promoting of physical fitness" in schools. As the results of accomplishing our study based on our methodology as the above, the fact about developmental disorders among the Japanese children was able to discover as follows. a) Activity of the prefrontal cortex b) Sensory function such as muscular sense and visual funcion of three-dimensional c) Autonomic nervous system d) Thermo regulation function We investigated thoroughly physical changes among the Japanese children by our methodology, and the developmental disorders and physical disorders which a worse condition were covered. The actual feeling of the Yogokyoyu in school was useful very much to find these changes quickly.
    Download PDF (697K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 2 Pages 275-305
    Published: March 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (2868K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 2 Pages 306-309
    Published: March 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (330K)
  • Type: Bibliography
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 2 Pages 310-
    Published: March 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (16K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 2 Pages 311-
    Published: March 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (271K)
  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 2 Pages Cover7-
    Published: March 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (43K)
  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 2 Pages Cover8-
    Published: March 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (43K)
feedback
Top