This thesis is concerned with a point of views on new sports. A general idea of sports is not established at present, because, I believe, it has infiuence on the active points of the actual sporting and physical education world. This thesis was intended for search of chief problems, in regard to sporting conception from principle point of view.
Applying the estimation method of the distribution function of Rohrer-Index at each level of height by Ichimura, mean scores of R-Index at each level of height of each chronological age, from 8 to 18, male and female, were estimated. And the developmental transition of the mean score of R-Index at each level of height from eight years old to eighty years old was considered. The followings were presented as the results. 1) During childhood and middle adolescent ages where the body development is regular the higher the estimated mean score of R-Index is at the lower height. During the preadolescent ages where the development is accelerated the estimated mean score of R-Index is lower at the highest and the lowest levels of height, and the highest mean score is appeared at a middle level of height. 2) Considering the mean scores of R-Index depend on the levels of height, the traditional standard of the evaluation of fatness and thinness taking (the mean of weight)÷(the mean of height)^3 as the standard score of a group is improper. The table of the standard score of R-Index at each level of height is presented. 3) It is found that on the continuum of height there are such specific pints above where the development of height is more facilitated than weight and below where the development of weight is more facilitated than height without distinction of age.
In order to achieve accommodation of the eye which influences predominantly upon the kinetic visual acuity which chiefly relates to the accuracy in the timing action, the following studies were performed; that is, at the certain period of time, training to the velocity of accommodation was done repeatedly in every day, and the effect of training and the variations in the kinetic visual acuity accompanying with the training effect were determined. The results were obtained as described here, 1) By the training of accommodation of the eye, the accommodative contraction time shortened and the higher value of the kinetic visual acuity was obtained. 2) Relationship between the daily change in the accommodative contraction time and that in the kinetic visual acuity was due to chiefly to the degree of training for the optimal reaction to the moving object, where the subject himself performed in his daily life.
Seasonal variation of basal metabolism (BN) and resting metabolism (RM) was examined on six subjects who belonged to a rugby football club and five ordinarily students as a control. In order to estimate the extent of contribution of the skeletal muscles of extremities to the total body metabolism under basal or resting condition, the effect of lighting limbs on the total body metabolism was observed simultaneously. Results obtained are as follows: 1) Average value of BM throughout the whole year was 39.3 Cal/m^2/hr in athletes, being higher than that of nonetheless (36.1 Cal/m^2/hr). 2) BM and RM were increased in winter and decreased in summer. The extent of this seasonal variation of athletes in basal condition amounted to about l6.3% of the annual mean value. 3) The metabolic rate of athletes is depressed by ligature of the limbs by only 10.6% under basal condition. Therefore, the contribution of the skeletal muscles to the total heat production is not so great ad estimated before, and oxygen consumption of the skeletal muscles per kg is greater than that of nonetheless in both basal and resting condition. 4) The seasonal change was not only caused by an alteration of metabolism of internal organs quantitatively, but also by an adaptational change of metabolism in the skeletal muscles itself. 5) The metabolism was in the lowest level in the range of 20-25℃ of the environmental temperature in both groups, and below this range it was raised relatively steeply. The rise in the cold season was mainly brought about by an increment of the heat production of the skeletal muscles, and this tendency was significantly demonstrated in both groups, especially in athletes.
Using the integrator described, in the previous report the authors intended to compare the negative and the positive works done in the various types of the movement from the view point of EMG. The movements are the popular ones such as chinning, two hands curl, going up and down stairs, pedaling, squat and jumping. The elbow flexors are picked up in the two formers and the knee extensor and the ankle extensor in the four latters. Recording was carried out as follows; 1) EMG and its integration were recorded by the standard surface electrodes. 2) Motion patterns for the elbow, knee and ankle joints were recorded by the electrogoniometer. 3) Tension or pressure was recorded by the semi-conductive straingage. In the case of chinning, the subject grasped the horizontal bar with underhand grip and pull up the body from a full arm extension position to the position at which the chin was above the bar. This was the positive work for the elbow flexors. Then the subject extended the arm to the original position. This was the negative work for the elbow flexors. Those movement were done very slowly and at the same speed. Fig.5 shows the recordings of EMG, its integration and electrogoniogram at chinning. It is clear that at flexion (positive work) is about two or three times larger than at extension (negative work). The same results were seen in the other movements. Namely, the magnitude of the action potentials of the muscle was always larger in shortening (positive) than in lengthening (negative), if exerting the same force at same speed.
Several researchers have tried the experiments on positive and negative works from the view point of tile energy consumption. Those results showed the same inclination that while the energy cost at the positive work increased according to the amount of the load, that at the negative work was constant over a wide range. The purpose of this study was to reveal this inclination from the view point of the electrical activity of muscles. The experimental subject was a healthy adult man (35 years old). The subject supported the various weights (2,4,6,8kg) with his wrist in sitting position isotonically. Action potential recordings were made from the elbow flexors using the standard surface electrodes. Integration was performed with Miller's circuit (reported in I). The angular velocity of the elbow joint was determine by the electrogoniogram. By the use of rhythmical movements, the subject made contractions of a certain velocity. Contraction velocities were from 30 to 30O degrees per second in both shortening and lengthening of the muscle. The range of the movement of elbow joint was about 70 degrees from 60° to 130° in each trial, but integration was observed in 30 degrees from 80°to 110°. The results were as follows; 1) At constant tension oof shortening or lengthening, the total electrical activities linearly decreased with velocity. But the electrical activities per second increased with velocity in shortening and remained almost constant in lang thinning. 2) At constant velocity of shortening or lengthening, the electrical activity per second increased according to the amount of tension. The more the slope of this relation was, the higher the velocity of contraction was in shortening (positive), though there was little difference in lengthening (negative).
The study is the second in the successive series of literature study of the upper extremity strength measurement in Britain and the U.S.A. between 1900 and 1967, with its purpose being in the determination of the strong and weak points of each method of strength measurement, and in the understanding of the various characteristics of the upper extremity strength. By comparing and analyzing the methods and results in these studies, (1) various methods of strength testing on each action of the upper extremities, (2) the phasic variation of the strength at various joint angles for each action, and (3) the intercorrelationships of various strength and anthropomteric measures were critically studied.