Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 45 , Issue 6
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 6 Pages Cover21-
    Published: November 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 6 Pages Cover22-
    Published: November 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (725K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 6 Pages App6-
    Published: November 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Kiyoji Tanaka
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 6 Pages 679-694
    Published: November 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Cardiorespiratory fitness or cardiorespiratory endurance fitness(CREF) refers to the ability of the body to sustain prolonged, rhythmical exercise. The great interest over the last several decades in the importance of CREF stems from a series which report that endurance exercise performance is highly correlated to maximal oxygen uptake (VO_2max) and oxygen uptake at which systematic changes in lactate(LT:lactate threshold) and/or respiratory gas exchange measurements (VT:ventilatory threshold) occur as a result of an elevated metabolic acidosis. LT and VT have been used interchangeably with anaerobic threshold(AT) by a number of researches. VO_2max is the highest rate of oxygen uptake attainable for a given form of maximal or exhaustive ergometry. VO_2AT was first defined by Wasserman et al.(1973) as the level of oxygen uptake, above which aerobic energy production is supplemented by anaerobic mechanisms. In recent years, accumulative epidemiologic research results suggest that low levels of CREF, as represented by VO_2max or VO_2AT, are associated with increased risk of such chronic diseases as coronary artery disease, stroke, hypertension, diabetes, and several forms of cancer. Thus, from both human performance and health status perspectives, the importance of assessing CREF is very clear. However, direct measurement of CREF requires considerable expense in terms of high-quality equipment and well-trained exercise testing personnel. Close approximation of CREF using standardized exercise testing protocols also requires specialized equipment and trained personnel. Therefore, various combinations of critical factors that may be predictive of CREF have been used to accurately assess VO_2max and/or VO_2AT. Indirect assessment of VO_2max and VO_2AT, using self-perceived intensity(RPE:ratings of perceived exertion) and power output during submaximal cycling exercise as independent variables, is useful when large numbers of subjects are tested. The 12-min walk test at an intensity of RFE 13 also has high potential as a substitute for direct measurement. This manuscript summarizes the scientific rationale and reviews the critical findings of various researches in the area of CREF Measurement.
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  • Shunsuke Yamaji, Shinichi Demura, Yoshinori Nagasawa, Masakatsu Nakada ...
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 6 Pages 695-706
    Published: November 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In previous studies, many parameters to evaluate static muscle endurane have been proposed, but their properties and relationships have not been sufficiently examined. In sustained maximal static exertion, muscle exertion can be classified as a remarkable phase and a nearly steady state phase of strength decrease. Both phases could relate to different physiological factors of muscle endurance, but little is known about evaluation parameters for either phase. This study aimed to examine the properties and relationships of various evaluation parameters, including the transition time when the decrease in speed shows a distinct change, by analyzing the force-time curve of sustained static hand gripping(SSHG), and to propose effective parameters. Thirty healthy university students were selected as subjects. SSHG work demanded an exertion of maximal muscle strength(MAX) for 12 minutes. Evalution parameters were calculated for 6 and 12 minutes. The time(t5), when the determination coefficients of two regressions based on a remarkable phase and a steady state phase of strength decrease became maximal, was considered effective to statistically evaluate a change point of decreasing rate. It was also suggested that the time(t1), when the exertion value is furthest from the linear line between MAX and the last exertion value, and the time(t4) of the intersection of the regression(y_1=a_1X+b_1) based on exertion values until t1 and the regression(y_3=a_3X+b_3, a_3=0) based on exertion at a steady state, were effective because the change with different measurements of 6- and 12-minites was less. Moreover, muscle oxygenation during SSHG decreased from the beginning of SSHG to 40-60 seconds. It was considered that obstruction of the blood flow caused an insufficient oxygen supply. This time period was almost consistent with change times(t1, t4, t5) of exertion value. It was suggested that parameters such as the regression coefficient(a1), the persisting times of 80%, 70%, and 60% of MAX and the sum of the decrement of exertion for the first 1 min can evaluate a remarkable phase of strength decrease. Total integrated area, the last strength exertion value and decreasing rate are appropriate for a nearly state phase. Further, it was considered that all parameters except the transition time(t1-t4) and regression coefficient(a2) can be evaluated almost equally at 6 minutes instead of 12 minutes.
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  • Tsutomu Kobayashi
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 6 Pages 707-718
    Published: November 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this paper is to examine the question of "what is sport in the context of development". Various kinds of development assistance have been given since World War II. However, the gap between developed and developing countries is still large. As a means of solving this North-Sourth inequality, attention has been drawn to sport as a new means of development in recent years. For instance, collaborative projects have been launched by the UNDP and IOC, and also the FAO and IOC in developing countries. These projects suggest that sport has come to be accepted as a form of development assistance. The number of IOC and IF member countries exceeds that of UN member countries. Therefore these organizations have the merit of being able to integrate the developed and developing countries on a global level, through the international character of sport rules. International sport organizations place themselves at the core of the power structure and have come to enforce their power on behalf of peripheral developing countries. The paper looks closely at the background to world-wide development of integrating organizations and describes the unexpected problems that have been occurring in the developing countries.
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  • Atsushi Inagaki
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 6 Pages 719-738
    Published: November 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    One of the most important concerns in coaching activity and team management is to assess individual and/or team ability. One approach is to estimate ability by analyzing the outcome of an actual game. In most cases, the BT-model (Bradley & Terry, 1952), which was developed for preference analysis in psychometric studies, is popular in sports sciences because it readily allows ability to be estimated in terms of win-rate. However, this model is well known to have certain inherent problems. In this study, we developed a new model, the OD-model, which can assess not only offence and defence ability separately but also the stability of each performance. Maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters are obtained using scores, based on an ordinary additional normal error model and the local independent assumption. Moreover, a logistic model, principal component analysis model, timeseries model, and a model using win-loss data are also proposed. An illustrative application to data for the Japanese professional baseball league in 1994 is demonstrated. Finally, the relatioship to other models, and the advantages and limitations of the method relative to the BT-model are discussed.
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  • Akihiro Azuma, Hideki Kawakami, Katsuyuki Maezawa
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 6 Pages 739-745
    Published: November 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of aerobic exercise for weight loss and fat reduction using an arm crack ergometer in a wheelchair-dependent patient with distal-type progressive muscular dystrophy. The subject was instructed to perform arm cracking 2 days per week for 6 months with a work rate of 29 W for 20 min in the initial stage, and 38 W for 30 min in the terminal stage of training. Body weight, skinfold thickness, and blood pressure were measured throughout the training period, and heart rate was monitored during every session. Also, lipid profiles and levels of some enzymes(γ-GTP, GOT, GPT and CPK) were examined at the 4th month of training, and compared with data obtained before training. Heart rate was not increased despite the increase in work rate, and was controlled between 110 and 120 beats/min over the training period. Body weight decreased by 3 kg with a decrease in the sum of two skinfold thickness after the training. Furthermore, a decline in blood pressure of approximately 10% was shown at the end of training, and the levels of triglycerides, γ-GTP, and GPT were improved. It is possible that arm cranking exercise in wheelchair-dependent patients with progressive muscular dystrophy is effective not only for fat reduction but also for improvement of cardio-respiratory function.
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  • Type: Appendix
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 6 Pages 746-755
    Published: November 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 6 Pages 756-758
    Published: November 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 6 Pages 759-764
    Published: November 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Index
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 6 Pages 765-770
    Published: November 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 6 Pages 771-
    Published: November 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Download PDF (470K)
  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 6 Pages Cover23-
    Published: November 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (27K)
  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 6 Pages Cover24-
    Published: November 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (27K)
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