In recent years, a self-selected exercise intensity (SSEI) method and its protocol consisting of 5-min fixed-load cycling at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake followed by 15-min SSEI cycling (SSFL70%) has been accepted as an intensity regulation method for better exercise prescription. The method simplifies exercise prescription and contributes to exercise habituation. There were no significant differences in ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise between the SSEI method and SSFL70%. However, the percentage of maximal load (%loadmax) regulated by each method differed significantly. These results suggest that the regulated intensity is not based on RPE in either or both of the two methods. In the present study, the interrelation between RPE and the values of physiological variables, and between RPE and the exercise load during the SSEI method and SSFL70% was examined chronologically. Thirty-six healthy men (aged 25.3±2.7 years, mean±SD) performed two trials consisting of 20-min cycling exercise using both the SSEI method and SSFL70% protocols. The coefficient of cross-correlation between FECO2 and RPE for cardiorespiratory function calculated during exercise was higher for the SSEI method than for SSFL70%. The tendency for the higher cross-correlation in the SSEI method was ascertained from the RPE value for the femoral region and %loadmax. However, the time cycle of positive to negative changes in the coefficients of cross-correlation was relatively shorter for SSFL70% than for the SSEI method. These results suggest that changes in physical condition and workload during exercise using SSFL70% are reflected in RPE in the short term compared with the SSEI method.
It is important to extract the deep-layer arrangement to study on sports tactics, which makes the tactics as they really are, rather than analyzing the phenomenal forms at their surface. The purpose of this study was to propose the “original doctrine-based approach” as a logical method suitable for studying the arrangement of sports tactics and to examine the objective reasonableness of it. As a result of considering and examining the three viewpoints, namely the conceptual regulations of sports tactics, meta theory of sports tactics studies, and the original doctrine-based approach, sequentially and in turn, it was verified that, unlike the methods adopted in sports tactics study implemented thus far, the approach proposed by this study is an effective method for analyzing the deep-layer arrangement of sports tactics and universal principles that support the arrangement and put it in good order, if some condition control, having some objective reasonableness, can be set. It can be concluded that the method clarified by this study provides a new paradigm not only for the observation and analysis of complicated and diversified one-time-like, passing sports tactics actions, which appear at the superficial layer, but also for the creation and construction of sport tactics actions not yet materialized, and it is considered to greatly support actual sports coaching scenes.
A study was conducted to investigate the age-related development of rebound and counter movement jumping ability. A total of 1137 boys (6 yr: 59, 7 yr: 82, 8 yr: 69, 9 yr: 142, 10 yr: 105, 11 yr: 169, 12 yr: 103, 13 yr: 110, 14 yr: 77, 15 yr: 66, 16 yr: 73, and 17 and 18 yr: 82) conducted counter movement jumping (CMJ) as a non-ballistic movement and five-repeated rebound jumping (5RJ) as a ballistic movement. Jumping ability was assessed using CMJ jumping height and the value obtained by dividing jumping height by the ground contact time in 5RJ (RJ-index). CMJ jumping height and the RJ-index in 5RJ increased in accordance with growth. Development of the RJ-index in 5RJ depended on the increase in jumping height, because ground contact time did not change even though jumping height increased with growth. There was a significant correlation between CMJ jumping height and RJ-index in 5RJ (r=0.765, p<0.001, r2=0.585). Division of jumping ability types was based on±1SD of the residual. These types were as follows: CMJ ability corresponded to RJ ability (CMJ=RJ: n=810), RJ ability was superior to CMJ ability (Good RJ: n=165) and RJ ability was inferior to CMJ ability (Poor RJ: n=162). The number of Good RJ and Poor RJ types increased between the ages of 9-13 years, which is the onset of the growth spurt. These results suggest that CMJ jumping height and RJ-index in 5RJ increase in accordance with growth, but the processes of age-related development of both types of jumping ability do not necessarily correspond to each other, and developmental differences between individuals tend to increase at the onset of the growth spurt.
A study was conducted to identify the effect of a computer-assisted swimming instruction (CASI) program on children's learning motivation and learning strategy. Twenty children learning to swim in a private swimming club participated. The subjects were classified into an experimental group that used the CASI program before each swimming lesson and a control group that merely participated in the ordinary swimming lesson at the pool. Learning motivation, learning strategy, and 50-m swimming performance for the front crawl and breaststroke were investigated before and after the swimming lesson. The experimental group showed significantly higher fulfilment-oriented motivation (p<0.05) and a tendency to have higher practice- and performance-oriented learning motivation. Using the CASI program developed to enhance swimming performance, it was indicated that the children's motivation to obtain a higher performance level increased, even though it did not necessarily result in higher performance improvement. The CASI program also enhanced enjoyment of the instruction program and interest in swimming as a sport itself, and therefore it may be utilized beneficially in an educational setting.
To encourage older adults to participate in exercise, it is important for self-governing bodies to divide them into subgroups according to exercise habit and to determine facts such as what they think about exercise and what type of programs would help them most. In Japan, however, few such schemes have been reported. This study aimed to clarify the process of ascertaining the characteristics of older adults and to establish a challenging means of encouraging continued exercise. The eligible study population was all residents aged 65-69 years living in Isobe town, Mie Prefecture, Japan (n = 675) , 460 (68.1%) responded to our questionnaire during a two-month period (November-December) in 2003. The respondents were divided into subgroups according to exercise frequency: those exercising twice a week or more (21.1%, Group A) , once a week (6.3%, Group B) , once or twice a month (7.6%, Group C) , and no exercise (65.0%, Group D) . Group A exercised because they believed they became healthier or achieved an improved fitness level. Group B undertook exercise as they regarded rapport as important, i.e. making friends at group exercise classes. To the question “Why don't you exercise?” Group C noted the lack of an exercise companion, and Group D noted low motivation. From the responses to “What type of approaches do you look for so that you might start exercise?” Group C suggested approaches such as an invitation to join an exercise class, or an introduction to an exercise instructor, and Group D suggested an exercise program that they could perform at home. Based on these results, a challenge for each group was established: to maintain the exercise frequency (Group A) , to increase awareness of the effects of exercise (Group B) , to participate more in group exercise sessions (Group C) , and to experience an easy-to-use home exercise program (Group D) . Future research is required to ascertain the effects of such challenges on exercise habit in older adults.
The present study was performed to clarify the reasons for the reduction in the amount of time spent by the current generation of elementary school children playing outside or participating in sports, based on opinions from both the children themselves and their guardians and teachers, data that could be used to establish methods of promoting outdoor activities or sports. This survey was conducted using a questionnaire that targeted 3,752 elementary school students in Kanagawa prefecture (broken down into 999 4th grade boys, 891 4th grade girls, 933 6th grade boys and 929 6th grade girls), 5,017 of the guardians of these students (685 males and 4,332 females), and 1,202 education-related personnel (423 males and 779 females). In order to process the results, we categorized the figures into 3 groups of children, adult generation 1 (20 to 30 years of age), and adult generation 2 (40 to 50 years of age), and analyzed them on the basis of Hayashi's quantification theory. In examining the characteristics of play and activities, we found that children played less frequently outside in locations such as open spaces and empty land lots, and that they tended to play alone more often when compared with recollections by adult generations 1 and 2. Furthermore, we found that playing outside or engaging in sports was not passed on to children as types of activity that could be enjoyed in groups. We also observed that the types of play activities children adopted are greatly affected by the media. Regarding the relationship between play activity environments and the variety of outdoor play and sports, we found that regardless of generation classification the experience of playing in natural settings such as mountains, the sea, rivers or similar locations served as a large factor in providing variety for recreational activities, and that participation in sports clubs and the involvement of adults were also major factors in promoting such activities. Based on these findings, we suggest that establishing and maintaining locations where children can play with a sense of freedom, and the involvement of adults in passing on play activities and introducing play-related ideas, are essential for the promotion of outdoor play activities and sports for children.
This study investigated the effect of a thermal swimsuit (TSS) on children's thermal sensation and formative evaluation during elementary school swimming classes. In addition, application of the TSS in different environmental conditions in an outdoor swimming pool and children's physical characteristics were studied. The study participants were 62 sixth-grade elementary children, who were divided into two groups (experimental: n=32, control: n=30). The investigation consisted of a pre-test, and a post-test after three days of TSS intervention. A questionnaire survey concerning children's thermal sensation and formative evaluation of the class was conducted after each class. It was found that on days when the weather was cold, the experimental group significantly attenuated the cold sensation and showed higher motivation and interest in the class. Additionally, the TSS was able to decrease the number of students who could not continue swimming in the water because of coldness. These results indicated that swimming classes could be held even in a cold environment when the TSS was used. Furthermore, it was suggested that application of the TSS as a teaching aid would compensate for the thinner physique of children.
This study gives a historical account, in order to urge a perspective of modernization of sports through a criminal law in Britain, the Highways Act of 1835. The British Parliament had recognized the illegality of street games, but through the process of drafting the Highways Act of 1835, there is an explication how the process had impacted modernization of sports. During the parliamentary session in 1831, an amendment was introduced for the first time to consolidate the Turnpike Act of 1822, s.121. The parliament would have utilized the Turnpike Act of 1822, s.121 to extend the law to not only the turnpike, but the highways as well. The Turnpike Act had banned ‘bull-baiting, bull-running, football, tennis, fives, cricket, or other games’ on the turnpikes by making a nuisance on the common law into a basis. The select committee of the House of Commons in 1833, however, required to remove ‘football, tennis, fives, cricket, or other games’ from the bill. After that, ‘football or other games’ were appended to the bill by the select committee of the House of Lords in 1835. The Parliament approved the legality of some sports activities on highways with the Highways Act of 1835, s.72. It has actually eradicated the original element of the bill that led to nuisance on highways, in order to keep a public right of smooth passage. However, the Act of 1835, s.72 was so limitative with the Houses of Commons and Lords that ‘tennis, fives, and cricket’ had been deleted from the content. On the analysis of the Parliament journals, it is obvious that the regulations of street games had been changed a few times in the Parliamentary sessions from 1831 to 1835. The political judgment determined some prohibited street games by the statute. Especially, the requirement by the select committee of the House of Commons supposed to expel all of ball games from the bill, though the select committee of the House of Lords appended ‘football, or other games.’ As the result, the Highways Act of 1835, s.72 left the door open, to modernize ‘tennis, fives, and cricket’ on the British highways.
Recently, resistance training-based exercise programs for the elderly have been widely performed as preventive approaches for long-term care in Japan. Here, we evaluated two health programs in order to find factors that would contribute to the enhancement of exercise habituation in exercise intervention for disability prevention in community-dwelling Japanese elderly. Fifty-two elderly people were instructed to stretch every part of the body and to perform low-intensity resistance training for the lower extremities as basic exercises in two classes. The participants in Class A were instructed once a week for the first four weeks and those in Class B every two weeks for 3 months. At the baseline, and 3 months later, physical performance and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated using a questionnaire survey including information on age, sex, subjective health status, habitual exercise and Self Motivation Test. We examined the factors contributing to exercise habituation by multivariate logistic analysis. There were no significant differences in the results of the questionnaire survey except for mean age between the participants in Class A and Class B. By means of these interventions, the results of Timed Up and Go and the ratio of individuals who regularly exercised were improved, whereas BMI, grip strength and standing on one leg were not. Only 29.4% of participants followed basic exercises twice a week in Class A, whereas 83.3% of participants adhered to basic exercises in Class B. Exercise habituation was higher among participants who felt subjectively healthy and habitually exercised, and most of them belonged to Class B, in comparison with subjects who did not exercise habitually. Multivariate analysis indicated that the choice of class and subjective health status of the participants were the most important factors for exercise habituation. Our findings suggest that participant-tailored program planning is important for exercise habituation as an approach to exercise intervention for community-dwelling elderly.